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Part 1:  Claim coat of arms, initiation         Part 3:  Claims on Jülich-Kleve-Berg

Various claims on the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Only claims that became visible on coins are mentioned here.

Claim from Naples on Jerusalem
Claim from Lorraine on Jerusalem
Claim from Montferrat on Jerusalem
Savoy's claim on Jerusalem

Individuals acquired the right to bear the title of King of Jerusalem and passed this claim on to their respective dynasties. The dynasties retained this claim even when they changed territories, e.g. from Naples to Lorraine. However, the claim also remained attached to a territory even when the ruling dynasty changed, such as in Naples. This led to Naples and Lorraine claiming the title at the same time. The pretender-claim could also pass from Montferrat to Mantua and from Cyprus to Savoy.

Kingdom of Jerusalem
Gottfried of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine since 1089, set off on the First Crusade in 1096. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, he became the first regent of the newly founded Kingdom of Jerusalem. After his death in 1100, his brother was proclaimed King Balduin I of Jerusalem. After the death of Balduin II, his son-in-law Fulko, Count of Anjou, took over Jerusalem in 1131. He was succeeded on the throne by two sons and a grandson.
Guido of Lusignan, who became king in 1186, was unable to prevent the conquest of Jerusalem by the Sultan in 1187 and resigned the crown of Jerusalem in 1192 in order to take over the rule of Cyprus.
In 1229, Emperor Frederick II won Jerusalem by treaty and crowned himself King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Nevertheless, Hugh III of Lusignan, King of Cyprus, was crowned King of Jerusalem in Cyprus in 1259. Charles I of Anjou, who had destroyed the last Hohenstaufen in 1266, emerged as the counter-king of Jerusalem in 1277.
With the conquest of Acre by the Arabs in 1291, the last occidental base in Palestine was lost. From then on, the king of Jerusalem was a king without a country and the kingdom of Jerusalem was purely a titular kingship. Several European dynasties held the pretender title 'King of Jerusalem' at the same time due to family ties to a past king of Jerusalem. Kings of Naples, Marquises of Montferrat, Dukes of Savoy and those of Lorraine and the House of Habsburg-Lorraine thus became titular kings of Jerusalem.
Ref. :
• Wikipedia, Kingdom of Jerusalem
• François R. Velde, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

Claim from Naples on Jerusalem
Charles I of Anjou, who was called by the Pope, defeated the last Hohenstaufen in southern Italy in 1265/6. In 1277, Charles I bought a supposed hereditary claim to Jerusalem with the support of the Pope. This put Charles I in opposition to Hugh III of Cyprus, who had been King of Jerusalem since 1269. Charles I asserted himself as the antikings and the title of King of Jerusalem was henceforth inherited by the ruling line of the Kingdom of Naples.

Charles I of Anjou, 1266-85: Salut d'or, Naples.  Ø 22 mm, 4,37 g.
CNI 19 p.13 n.1; Pannuti/Riccio 1; Friedb.808.

"Charles, by the grace of God, King of Jerusalem and Sicily"
Split coat of arms: Jerusalem and Anjou (lilies), between a sickle, two rosettes and four stars.

"Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you"
Annunciation: Archangel Gabriel points to the Virgin Mary, vase with lilies in between.

Charles I of Anjou had lost Sicily to the House of Aragon in 1282, but the House of Anjou was able to retain control of Naples and continued to retain the title of King of Jerusalem. The House of Anjou later included Hungary in its coat of arms after two rulers of this dynasty became elective kings of Hungary. When King Alfonso V of Aragón defeated René I d'Anjou in 1442 becoming additionaly King Alfonso I of Naples, he also took over the claim on Jerusalem and its coat of arms. The claim to Jerusalem later passed to the rulers of Spain along with their coat of arms.

René, who was expelled from Naples, took the coats of arms and claims on Jerusalem for the House of Anjou with him to the Provence, from where they came by herritage to Lorraine:

René I. d'Anjou(†1480) :  Blanc, Provence.  Billon, Ø 28 mm, 2,69 g.
Dy.1710 (4e type); R.129a (3e type)

Obv:   +⦂RᗺnATVS⦂SICILIᗺ⦂RᗺX⦂  -  Coat of arms in trefoil
Above: Hungary, Old Anjou and Jerusalem   Below: New Anjou and Bar (2 fish)

Rev:   +⦂SIT⦂nOᙏᗺn⦂DNI⦂BᗺnDITVᙏ⦂  -  Cross with two crowns and two lilies in a quatrefoil.

Alfonso V. of Aragon as Alfonso I. of Naples :  Carlino Naples.  Ø 26 mm, 3,59 g.
Pannuti Riccio 42, 3 var.; CNI XIX 76, 191 var.

Obv.:  ✠ALFOnSVS◦D◦G◦Rex◦ARagon◦Siciliae◦ᗡitra et◦Vltra◦Faro  "... Sicily, on both sides of the strait"
Quartered coat of arms Aragon / Naples (Jerusalem/Anjou/Hungary).

Rev.:   ✠DnS◦ᙏ◦ADIVT◦ᗺ⦂ᗺGO⦂D◦I◦ᙏ   for "Dominus mihi adiutor et ego despiciam inimicos meos"
= "The Lord is my helper and I will look down on my enemies" (Ps.118,7).
The king holds a scepter and cross globe and sits on lions as a throne.
Further coins and medals with the portrait of Alfonso I, King of Naples.

Ferdinand I of Aragón, 1458-1494, King of Naples.
Ducato, Naples.   Ø 22 mm, 3,54 g.   CNI 24var; Pannuti Riccio 5.
Obv.:   FERDINANDVS:Dei°Gratia°Rex°Siciliae°Ierosolymarum°Vngaria
Coat of arms: Hungary-Anjou-Jerusalem | Aragon
Rev.:   + RECORDATVS:MISERICORDIE:·SV   "In memory of his mercy"

From now on, no Anjou-lilies any more.

Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, 1503-04, as kings of Naples and Sicily..
Ducato, Naples.   Ø 22 mm, 3,48 g.   CNI 6; Pannuti Riccio 1.
"Those whom God has given together, man shall not separate"
Top right the coat of arms of Naples: Aragon|Jerusalem|Hungary.

Like the Catholic Kings, Emperor Charles V also allowed his claims to Jerusalem to live on,
e.g. on a undated scudo from Naples.

Philip II., 1554/6-1598, King of Spain, Naples and Sicily.
1/2 Ducato n. d. (1570), Naples.   mintmark GR/VP.   Ø 34 mm.   Pannuti/Riccio 15b.
Coat of arms, top right :  Aragon|Jerusalem,   and bottom right :  Sicily|Hungary.

Charles II, 1665-1700, King of Spain, Naples and Sicily
Ducato (100 grana) 1689, Naples.     Ø 41 mm, 24,44 g.   Pannuti/Riccio 2; Dav.4046.
Obv.:   ·CAROLVS·II· - ·Dei Gratia·REX·HISPaniarum·
Rev.:  ·VTRIVSque·SICIliae· - 16-89 - ·HIERVSalem·Grana·100·  -  Heart coat of arms: Flanders|Tyrol.

After the Spanish Habsburgs died out and the subsequent War of Succession, Naples came to Austria.

Charles VI of Austria, 1707-1734 (Naples) & 1720-1734 (Sicily)
Piastra da 120 grana 1733, Napoli.   Ø 41 mm, 25,37 g.   CNI 46; Pannuti Riccio 2; Dav.1396.
CAROL.VI. - D:G:ROM:IMP.   //   UTR:SIC: - HIERUSalem:   &   1733 - .G:120

In 1735, the Spanish Bourbons took over Naples and Sicily from the Habsburgs of Austria and continued to use the Jerusalem title, but not the coat of arms.

Claim from Lorraine on Jerusalem
René I. d'Anjou (see above) - son of the King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem - married the heir daughter of the Duke of Lorraine. René lost Naples to the House of Aragon in 1442, but his descendants were able to establish themselves in Lorraine. From him, the Dukes of Lorraine inherited the title of King of Jerusalem, which later passed to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and was held there until 1918. The coats of arms of Anjou-Naples and Jerusalem were incorporated into the Lorraine coat of arms. Since 1483 the Duke of Lorraine has also been Duke of Bar.

Anton the Good, 1508-44, Duke of Lorraine:   Teston 1532, Nancy.
Ø 29 mm, 9,39 g.
Obv.:   ‡ANTHON◦D◦G◦LOTOr◦Z◦BAr DVX   "... Duke of Lorraine and Bar"
Rev.:   MONETA◦NANCEII◦CVSA   "Money struck in Nancy"
coat of arms, above: Old Hungary, Anjou-Naples, Jerusalem, Old Provence (= Aragón)
below: Anjou (framed lilies) and Bar (2 fish between crosses).
Heart coat of arms: Lorraine (sloping bar with three mutilated eagles).
Coats of arms of possessions are only those of Lorraine and Bar.

When Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine wanted to marry Maria Theresa, France protested because it feared a resurgence of Austrian power at the Rhine. Francis Stephen then changed his land for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. He married in 1737 and became German Emperor as Francis I alongside Maria Theresa in 1745. The Polish ex-King Stanislaus I Leszczynski received Lorraine for life. After his death, Lorraine fell to France.

Emperor Francis I., 1745-65.   Thaler 1751 W-I, Vienna.
Ø 41mm, 832 fein, 28,08 g.   Voglh.289; Dav.1152.
Obv.:   FRANCiscus·Dei·Gratia·ROmanorum·Imperator·Semper· - Augustus·GErmaniae·IERodolymarum·Rex·
"Francis, by the grace of God Roman Emperor, perpetual ruler, King of Germany
and Jerusalem, Duke of Lorraine and Burgundy, Grand Duke of Etruria (Tuscany)"
Armored and draped bust with laurel wreath and fleece order as a brooch on the chest.

Rev.:   IN TE DOMINE - SPERAVI·1751·X (X = St. Andrew's Cross)
"I have placed my hope in you, Lord"
Crowned double-headed eagle with sword and scepter, crowned coat of arms on the chest:
Coat of arms, above: Old Hungary, Anjou-Naples, Jerusalem, Aragon
Coat of arms, below: Anjou, Geldern, Jülich, Bar (2 fishes between crosses)
Heart coat of arms: Lorraine | Tuscany (6 pills)
Below the shield with the coats of arms is the Tuscan cross of Saint Stephen.
The Order of the Fleece chain is placed around the shield.   In the field next to it: W - I for the Vienna mint.
Raised border inscription: PRO DEO ET IMPERIO and decorations.

Claim from Montferrat on Jerusalem
The ruling family of Montferrat (it. Monferrato) was at the forefront of the crusades. In 1183, the six-year-old Balduin of Montferrat nominally became King Balduin V of Jerusalem. Although he died three years later, Montferrat cites this interlude as the basis for his claim to the kingdom of Jerusalem. The Margraviate of Montferrat - and with it its claim - came to the Palaiologi from Byzantium by inheritance in the 14th century. They in turn bequeathed Montferrat and its claim to the House of Gonzaga in 1533. Finally, Montferrat became part of Savoy.

Guglielmo (William) II Palaiologos, 1494-1518, Margrave of Montferrat
Testone n. d.   Ø 29 mm, 9,51 g.   CNI II,p.106,no.32
Obv.:   GVLIELMVS*MAR*MONTFE*7C   "Wilhelm, Markgraf von Montferrat, etc." (7C = et cetera)
Rev.:   +SA - CRI·ROmani·IMPerii·PRINCeps·VICArius· - PerPetuus
"Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Permanent Governor"
Coat of arms above: Byzantine Empire, Jerusalem, Aragon;
below: Saxony (!), Bar, Palaiologists (cross and 4 Bs).
Heart coat of arms: Montferrat.

The subsequent dynasty - the House of Gonzaga - also incorporated Jerusalem into its coat of arms,
but not in the inscription as title.

Ferdinand Gonzaga, 1612-1626, Duke of Mantua and Monferrat
Tallero n. d., Casale.     Ø 41mm, 22,10g.   Dav.3870
Rs.:   ET·MONTIS❀·❀FERRATI·IV·❀   -   Coat of arms of Jerusalem
"Ferdinand, by the Grace of God 6th Duke of Mantua and 4th Duke of Montferrat"

unterlegtes Wappen :
red paw cross and four eagles (donated by Ks. Sigismund in 1432 on the occasion of the elevation of John Francis to Margrave of Mantua)

applied central shield with 9 fields:
  -   Byzantine Empire, Bohemia, House of Gonzaga
  -   Jerusalem, Aragon, Montferrat
  -   Saxony, Bar, House of the Palaiologists
(alleged ancestors from Saxony and Bohemia, Bar ?)

above:   crowned Austrian arms (Vincenzo I Gonzaga's mother was a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I)

Savoy's claim on Jerusalem
Louis the Elder, Duke of Savoy 1439-64, married Anne of Lusignan, daughter of Janus, King of Cyprus, in 1433. Her second son, Louis the Younger, married Charlotte of the House of Lusignan in 1459, who had just followed her father to the throne of Cyprus. Their joint government of Cyprus only lasted a year, as Charlotte's half-brother Jacob imprisoned her in a castle for three years until they were able to escape to Italy in 1463. This brief connection between the Houses of Savoy and Cyprus was later reflected in the title of Dukes of Savoy. Since the kings of Cyprus from the House of Lusignan had also maintained claims to Jerusalem, the Dukes of Savoy saw themselves entitled to call themselves "King of Cyprus and Jerusalem". Cyprus was conquered by the Turks in 1570.
The first coin with the title "King of Cyprus" and the coat of arms of Jerusalem were created under Carlo Emanuele II (1638-1675).

Carlo Emanuele III., 1732-73, Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia
Scudo da sei lire 1756, Torino.   Ø 43 mm, 35,18 g.   Dav.1494.
Obv.:   CARolus·EManuel·Dei·Gratia·REX·SARdiniae·CYPerae·ET·IERosolymarum   1756
"Carlo Emanuele, by the grace of God, King of Sardinia, Cyprus and Jerusalem"
"Duke of Savoy and Montferrat, Prince of Piedmont"
Crowned oval coat of arms with attached Order of Annunciation,
quarteres coat of arms: Sardinia, Jerusalem (top right), Lusignan, Montferrat (bottom right)
Heart Shield: Savoy.

Part 1 :  Claim coat of arms, initiation         Part 3 :  Claims on Jülich-Kleve-Berg

Start page Varia TOUR :  on sieges in the 16th century ➜