start page Charles V TOUR:   Frederick III the Wise of Saxony

      Contemporaries in the Holy Roman Empire      

Electors of the Palatinate
Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector (Philipp der Aufrichtige)
Louis V the Pacific, 1508-1544 Elector (Ludwig V. der Friedfertige)
Frederick II the Wise, 1544-1556 Elector (Friedrich II. der Weise)
Otto-Henry, 1556-1559 Elector (Ottheinrich von Pfalz-Neuburg)

Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine (Philipp der Aufrichtige)
Philip (*1448) married Margarete, the daughter of Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, on April 17, 1474 in Amberg. The wedding fountain on Amberg's market square commemorates this event. The couple had 14 children, including 9 boys. Nevertheless, the "Old Electoral Line" of the Palatinate became extinct with Otto-Henry in 1559.


Groschen 1504, Heidelberg   Ø 22 mm, 3,05 g. Coll.Noss 201; Coll.Memmesh.2181; Schulten 1661.
Obv.:   PhILIpus+ᗭOmes+PALatinus+RᗺnI+Princeps+ᗺLEᗭTor
"... count Palatine of the Rhine prince elector"
Coat of arms of the Palatinate, Bavaria and Regalia shield next to each other, above it crest with a lion.

Rev.:   ✼DᗺO+GLORIA+In+SᗺᗭVLA+150ጸ   "God's glory forever" and date (ጸ=4).
Armored bust half-right with Regalia: Curate's hat, sword and orb.

Louis the Pacific, 1508-1544 Elector Palatine (Ludwig V. der Friedfertige)
- First son of Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
Louis (*1478) succeeded his father in 1508 as Elector Palatine. His brother Ruprecht had lost the Landshut War of Succession in 1505, to which his father had encouraged him and which had brought the Palatinate an imperial ban. Thus, Ludwig first had to overcome the consequences of the lost War of Succession. With his peaceful manner, he succeeded in reconciling with the Munich Wittelsbachers who had been victorious in the war. He even married Sibylle, daughter of Duke Albert IV of Bavaria. In 1518, Emperor Maximilian released the Electoral Palatinate from the imperial ban in the course of negotiations about his succession. After Maximilian's death, Ludwig became imperial vicar until the coronation of Charles V. In the election of 1519, Louis voted for Charles V and against Francis I of France, not least because of large financial contributions from the Habsburgs.
Ludwig was open to criticism of the old church and its clergy. In 1521, he campaigned for Luther to be heard at the Diet of Worms. From then on, he strove to find a compromise solution to the religious question. In 1533 and 1539 he mediated between the emperor and the Protestant imperial estates. Ludwig remained Catholic throughout his life, but made numerous concessions to the Protestants in his country.
During the peasant uprisings in 1525, Ludwig initially tried to negotiate with the peasants, as he considered some of their demands to be justified. But when the unrest got out of hand, he took part in the suppression of the uprisings on the Rhine, in Franconia and in the Palatinate.
When Ludwig died childless in 1544, his brother Frederick II succeeded him as Elector Palatine.

The Electors of Cologne, Mayence and Treves decided not to publish the Imperial Coinage Order of 1524 at all and to regard it as non-existent. They disliked, among other things, that the imperial eagle together with the imperial name and title should be placed on coins.
When Elector Louis had to pay his mercenaries in the Peasants' War in 1525 and lacked other money and therefore had thalers minted, he was accused at the Electoral Coin-Probation Day of having stuck "side coins" of silver which were issued at 1, ½, ¼ gold florins. His envoys excused him by saying that this coinage was not done out of evil intent, but only out of the high necessity of war. In the Rhineland, there seems to have been a reluctance to accept this large pieces of silver, which probably seemed bulky to most, for fear of being cheated and especially robbed of the time-honoured gold florins.
The following coin was thus created as a reward for mercenaries.


Reichsguldiner 1525, Heidelberg.   Ø 38 mm, 28,78 g.  Exter I,29,19 & pl.14b; Dav.9621.
Obv.:  ¤LVdovicus - ·Dei (Bavarian lozenge shield) Gratia·COmes·PAlatinus (Regalia shield of the Archtruchess Office) Dux·Bavaria·PRinceps (Palatinate lion shield) Elector·1525
Half length effigy in electoral regalia (electoral hat and ermine coat) holding electoral sword on his shoulder with the left hand and orb in the right.
Rev.:   ¤ ஃ MOИeta·CARoli V·CaESar·ET·ROMomanorum·IMPerator
Nimbed double-headed eagle.
In the Golden Bull (1356), Emperor Charles IV recorded the custom that the insignia of the Roman king should be carried in front of the Roman king during ceremonial processions on the occasion of an imperial diet: the imperial orb (pomum imperiale) from the Count Palatine, the imperial sword from the Elector of Saxony and the imperial scepter from the Elector of Brandenburg. This privilege meant so much to the electors of the Palatinate that they included the imperial orb in their coat of arms, see below.

This coinage follows exactly the regulation of the first Imperial Coinage Rule (Reichsmünzordnung) of 1524: § 11 demands that the imperial coins should bear the imperial eagle with the inscription of emperors title on the "main side" while the design of the "reverse" (now called "obverse") was left to the estate of coinage.
The 1st Imperial Coinage Rule also specified weight and fineness for these pieces called "Güldener", "one of which does a Rhenish guilder": 8 of these pieces should go to a 15-lot mark (15/16 = 937.5/1000 fine), which is 8x16/15 = 88/15 on the fine mark (233.85 g). This results in a raw weight of 29.23 g and a fine weight of 27.40 g.

Look at the oil painting, 65x49 cm, Historical Museum of the Palatinate, Speyer.
At the bottom of the picture is a gold inscription on a black background:
"Ludwig Kurfürst Regiert löblich die Pfalztz Sein genn hl (?) ward Sibilis Hörtzögin Aufs Bayrn".
See also the portrait, 12.8 x 9.7 cm, made by an anonymous artist, kept at KHM.


Bronze cast medal n. d. (1526), model by Hans Schwarz partially overworked.     Ø 44 mm.
Habich 200; Stemper 3; Kastenholz zu 86/86C.

Obv.:   LVDOVVICVS·D·G·CO PA·RHE·D·BA·PRIN·ELEC
Bust to the left with a slit hat and a fur cap, the incised date I5Z6 in the field to the right.
Rev.:   : Helmet above the shields Palatinate, Bavaria and Regalia. Lion crest and foliage.
On the coiled banner: LV / D WIG·P / ALT / ZGR / AF·CVRFVIRST [arabesque]
engraving in German: "Ludwig Pfalzgraf Churfürst".
An original cast (Ø 47 mm) is exhibited in the coin cabinet of the Bode Museum in Berlin.
Our piece must be a reproduction. Its diameter (44 mm) is smaller than that of an original (47 mm) as in Berlin. The cast shrinks as it cools. What is more important, however, is that the mold for the subsequent recast has already shrunk during drying.


Cast silver medal 1535, unsigned by Matthes Gebel.  Ø 43 mm, 28,40 g.  Habich I,2 1121; Stemper 8.
Obv.:   LVDOVICVS·DEI·GRATIA·COMES·PALATINVS·RHENI·ÆTATIS·SVE·LVII·ANN·AGENS·
Rev.:   DVX·BAIOARIE·SACRI·ROMANI·IMPERII·ARCHIDAPIER·ELECTORA·ANN·DOMI·MD·XXXV·

Frederick II the Wise, 1544-1556 Elector Palatine (Friedrich II. der Weise)
- fourth son of Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatin -
Frederick (*1482) spent a large part of his youth at the Brussels court. There he became the first advisor to the later Emperor Charles V, who was still under age. In 1515 Frederick accompanied the 15-year-old Charles, who had just come of age, on his homage tour through the Netherlands. A year later Frederick was admitted to the Order of the Golden Fleece. He was to accompany Charles and his sister Eleanor to Spain in 1517. But because he showed an inclination for Eleanor, who was destined for King Manuel of Portugal, Frederick was suspended from court. After Emperor Maximilian's death, Frederick actively campaigned for Charles' election as emperor. This earned him the imperial governorship in 1521.
From 1505 to 1522 he was guardian of his nephews Otto-Henry and Philip in the principality of Palatinate-Neuburg, which had been founded as a result of the Landshut War of Succession. After the death of his father in 1508, Frederick became Count Palatine in the Upper Palatinate. Frederick married Dorothea, daughter of Christian II of Denmark and Isabella, a sister of Charles V, in 1535.
Frederick served the Habsburgs as a general and diplomat until 1544, when he succeeded his childless brother Louis V as Elector Palatine. He became Lutheran in 1542 and introduced the Reformation in the Palatinate. After the Schmalkaldic War, he was able to save himself from losing the electoral dignity to Bavaria by submitting to the Emperor. After that, he remained neutral in religious matters. He ensured improvements at the University of Heidelberg.


Single-sided medal 1518 by Hans Schwarz.    Ø 48 mm.  Habich 115; Stemper 17; Kastenholz 24.
❀DVX·FRIDERICVS·PALEN·M·D·XVIII

On the governorship of the Imperial Regiment:
At the Diet of Worms in 1521, the emperor appointed his brother Ferdinand as governor. Frederick II replied that in the absence of the emperor, the elector of the Palatinate was entitled to the imperial vicariate. In addition, his brother, Elector Louis V, had served the Emperor in this function with numerous reports. Thereupon the Emperor certified that the imperial regiment should not be detrimental to the viceroyal rights of the Palatine Elector. Furthermore, Frederick became the Emperor's governor at the Imperial Regiment together with Archduke Ferdinand, who had not yet mastered the German language. This had been established in Nuremberg in 1500 as the estates' governing body of the empire. It was reactivated in 1521 and was supposed to take over the government in the absence of the emperor. As a result, Frederick went to Nuremberg at the end of 1521. The lavish life he led there, however, did not match his means, especially since the promised fee did not materialize. So he relinquished his position as governor as early as 1523. However, he had already commissioned a medal and the following commemorative coin.


1/2 Guldiner 1522 (strike from the Guldiner-dies), on the imperial governor dignity.
Ø 41mm, 14,75g.   Kull 299, Schulten 2732, Mende 27, Dav.9622 (Guldiner), Stemper 19 (Guldiner).
Obv.:   FRIDERICVS·Dei:Gratia·COmes PALAtinus·RHEni·BAVariae·DVX
Bust to the left, in armor with collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Rev.:  CAESareae MAIestatis IN (Bavarian diamond shield) IMPERIO:LOCVMTENEN (Palatine lion shield) S·MCCCCCXXII   "the imperial majesty imperial governor, 1522"
Double-headed eagle with halos and the Austria-Aragon shield on the breast.
The model for the portrait on this guldiner was a silverpoint drawing from 1523 by Albrecht Dürer (British Museum, London).
The title of the "emperor's governor in the empire" had previously been emphasised by Frederick the Wise of Saxony in 1507 up to 1513.


Thaler 1537, Amberg.     Ø 40 mm.   Dav.9624; Götz 63; Coll.Memmesh.2793.
Obv.:   +FRIDERICVS·D·G·COMES·PA·RHE·ET·BA·DVX·1537
Rev.:   +NON MIC(C take off)HI DomiNE SED - NOMINI(e instead of I) TVO DA GLOriam
"Not to me, Lord, but to Your name be honour"


Thaler 1538, Amberg.     Ø mm.   Dav.A9625; Köhler 4(1788) p.313.
Obv.:   FRIDERICVS·Dei:Gratia:COMES PAlatinus RHENI BAVAriae·DVX ZC(etc.)
Harnish hip portrait from the front between the date 15 - 38.
Rev.:  DE VVLTV TVO DNE - MEVm PRODEAT IVDICIVm
"From your face, Lord, come forth my judgement"
Coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria with princely hat and collar of the Order with the Golden Fleece.


Thaler 1547, Neumarkt.     Ø 40 mm, 28,3 g.   Götz 165; Schulten 2731; Dav.9626.
Obv.:   ¤FRIDER·D·G·Comes·PALatinus·RhenI·BAVAriae·DVX·S·R·I·PRI·EL
S.R.I.P.EL = Sacri.Romani.Imperii.Princeps.ELector = Elector of the Holy Roman Empire
Hip portrait in electoral regalia with electoral hat, electoral sword and imperial orb as well as Order of the Golden Fleece.
Rev.:   ¤MONEta:ARGEntea:SVPERIOris:PALATInatus:BAVARIae
"Silver money of the Bavarian Upper Palatinate"
Below the Palatine helmet the three coats of arms: Palatinate (crowned lion) / Bavaria (lozenges) / Electoral Palatinate (orb) between date 15 - 47.
Frederick is shown here in the full regalia of the Elector, like his predecessor (see above). The official attire consists of the ermine coat and the electoral hat. The Elector holds the electoral sword and orb in his hands.
The Saxon and Palatine electors carry the electoral sword. The Brandenburg electors, on the other hand, carry the imperial sceptre, which they also use as their electoral coat of arms. While the Saxon electoral coat of arms consists of crossed swords, the electors of the Palatinate adopted the orb in their electoral coat of arms.
The crowned Palatine lion was first used as a coat of arms on coins by Count Palatine Henry V in 1195-1212 (the eldest son of the Saxon Duke Henry the Lion). The Palatine lion is therefore a Guelph descendant.

See the portrait 1546, painted by Hans Besser, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna.

Otto-Henry, 1556-1559 Elector Palatine (Ottheinrich von Pfalz-Neuburg)
- Grandson of Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
Otto-Henry's (*10.4.1502) father, Ruprecht of the Palatinate, had married the testamentary heiress daughter of Bavaria-Landshut. However, this succession was hindered by an inheritance agreement between the Wittelsbach lines of Landshut and Munich. This led to the Landshut War of Succession between the Palatines and the Munich Wittelsbachers in 1504. An imperial arbitration award ended the war in 1505 and led to the creation of the fragmented Principality of Palatinate-Neuburg. Otto-Henry and his brother Philip were installed as regents, but remained under the guardianship of their uncle Frederick II until they came of age in 1522. In 1519 Otto-Henry accompanied his uncle to Spain, who conveyed the news of his election as emperor to Charles V.
In Neuburg, Otto-Henry expanded the residence into a Renaissance palace. As ruler of his small country, he led a pompous life. This overstretched his finances to such an extent that he finally had to hand over the power of government to the Estates in 1544. Otto-Henry had introduced the Reformation in Palatinate-Neuburg, to the displeasure of Emperor Charles V, who occupied the land in the Schmalkaldic War.
Otto-Henry was a passionate collector, especially of books. His book acquisitions - also brought about by accessing monastery libraries - finally ended up in the Bibliotheca Palatina when he succeeded his uncle Frederick II as Elector Palatine in 1556. The so-called Older Electoral Line ended with Otto-Henry in 1559.


6 Kreuzer n. d. (1505), Neuburg.     23 mm.   Schulten 2756; Coll.Noss II 544.
Obv.:   +OTTO·hEIИ· - ·PHIILL·COmites·PAlatini·RhEИI·
The two Palatine Counts Otto-Henry and Philip as children playing with a lion, above P.
Rev.:   INFErioris - Z(et)·SVPerioris·B - Avariae·DVCeS - ·ET FRATres·
Long cross with four coats of arms: Bavaria (lozenges) and Palatinate (lion).

Otto-Henry was particularly fond of his portrait medals, of which he commissioned around 30 different ones from 1520 onwards.
His medals bear both a year and usually a matching indication of age.


Bronze medal 1520, model by Hans Schwarz,   later cast, Ø 43 mm.
Habich I,1 213; Stemper 42; Kastenholz 87.

Obv.:   OTTHEINRICH·Von·Gottes·Gnaden·PFAlZgraf·Bei·REin·HERCZog·In·BEyern·
Bust portrait of the 18-year-old Otto-Henry with beret to the left.
Rev.:   ¤ MIT [leaf] DER [leaf] ·AE·ZEYT [leaf] MCCCCCXX   "With the date MCCCCCXX"
Quartered Palatinate-Bavarian coat of arms, above 2 intertwined vine leaves.
The design drawing made by Hans Schwarz himself has been preserved. (Bamberg, State Library). Originals of this medal in silver (45.5 mm, 55.25 g) can be found in Heidelberg and Munich, among other places. Later casts, like our piece, are smaller than the originals.


Single-sided cast lead medal 1527 for the 25th birthday, model by Hans Daucher, Augsburg.
Ø 41 mm. 45,88 g.     Habich cf.52; Stemper cf.45.

OTTOHEN·COmES PAlatini·RhENI·DVX·INFErioris·Et·SVPerIORis·BAVARiae
portrait with broad hat to the left, between date 1527 and age 25.


Bronze medal 1528, on the Concord of the Brothers,   model by Matthes Gebel.
Ø 36 mm, 28,99 g.   Habich I,2 980; Stemper 48.
Obv.:   OTTO HEN ET PHILIP·FRATRES·COMITES·PALA·RHE·ET·DVCES·BAIOARIEᏪ
both bust images, one behind the other to the right.
Rev.:   CORAM DEO ET HOMInibus·CONCORDIA FRATRum PROBATA EST·M·DXXVIII
"The unity of the brothers was invoked by God and men"
Two helmets side by side, crowned and decorated with lions, next to them a round quartered coat of arms Palatinate/Bavaria, below a suit of armour and surcoat.


Bronze medal 1528,  by Matthes Gebel.   Ø 42,5 mm, 31,3 g.  Habich 983; Stemper 49.
Obv.:  OTTOHEN·CO·PA·RHE·DVX·BAIOrum·Z C NAtivitatis·ANno·XXVI·  -  bareheaded bust right.
Rev.:   DOMInus·EST QVOD BOnum·EST IN OCVlis·SVIS FACIAT MDXXVIII·
"He is the Lord, he does what pleases him. 1530"   -   Double-helmeted escutcheon Palatinate/Bavaria.


Medal 1530, model by Mathes Gebel.     Ø 35 mm.   Habich 1049; Stemper 57.
Obv.:   OTTOHEN CO PA RHE DVX BAIO Z C NA AN XXVI. SVSSANNA COmitissa PALatina RHEni DVCISSa BAIOrum Z C ANno XXVIII NAtivitatis
"Otto-Henry, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, etc., in his 26th year. Susanna Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duchess of Bavaria in her 28th year"
Busts of the Count Palatine and his wife (Susanna of Brandenburg-Ansbach).

Rev.:   DOMInus·EST·QVOD BOnum·EST IN OCVlis SVIS FACIAT·M·DXXX·     similar as before.
Otto-Henry married Susanna, widowed daughter of Duke Albrecht IV of Bavaria-Munich, in 1529.
The marriage remained childless.


Cast Silver medal 1530/1528, model by Mathes Gebel.   Ø 20 mm.
Habich 1044; Stemper 52; Slg.Wolff 119; Slg.Memm.2827.

Obv.:   OTTOHEN·CO·PA·RHE - DVX·BAIO·Z·C NAtus·ANno·XXVI·     -   Bust to the right.
Rev.:   SALVVM·ME·FAC·DEVS·M·D·XXX   "God save me. 1530"
Lion to right, holding two coats of arms.
Here the age of 26 on the obverse does not match the year 1530 on the reverse.


Cast silver medal 1531, model by M. Gebel.   Ø 29,1 mm, 14,04 g.
Habich I,2 1050; Stemper 58.

Obv.:  OTTOHENICVS·DEIGRACIA·CO·PA·RHE - INFERI·SVPE·QZ·BAIO·DVX·ZC·  -  Bust right.
Rev.:   ·ETATIS·XXVIIII·M·D·XXXI·  "at the age of 28 in the year 1531"
Poseidon in a ship pulled by two horses at sea, in the raised right scourge.


Cast silver medal 1531, model by Mathes Gebel.   Ø 40,8 mm.
Habich I,2 1054; Stemper 59.

Obv.:   OTTOHENRICVS·DEIGRACIA·CO·PA·RIT - INFERI·SVPER·QZ·BAIO·DVX·ZC·
Bust with beret right.
Rev.:   Spes (personification of hope) holding a sail in the boat, in the section:
·SPES MEA·DEVS· | ·FORTVNAM·EXPEC// | ·TANS·ETATIS· | ·SVE·XXVIIII | MDXXXI
"in the hope of God's grace at the age of 29 - 1531"


Cast silver medal 1532, model by Mathes Gebel.   Ø 44 mm.     Habich I,2 1072, pl.127,2.
Specimen in the Coin cabinet of the National Museums in Berlin, displayed in Berlin, Bode-Museum, room 244.

Obv.:   OTTO HENRICVS·D·GRA·Co·PA·RHE·INFE·SVPQZ·BAIO·DVX·ZC   (SVPQZ = Superiorisque)
Bearded bust from the front, crowned flat hat, necklace disappearing under the shoulder collar.

Rev.:   A column with a richly ornamented cartouche containing in a wreath the
"Pirckheimer's Allegory", in the corners:
SPE/E - TRIBV/LAT/IO - IN/VI/DIA - TO/LERANTIA
"Hope - Tribulation - Envy - Patience"
At the base of the column 1·5·3·Z, on both sides two putti with horns.
See the engraving by Jacob Binck, 1529, 146x83 mm, provided by Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco.
In the centre is an anvil decorated with a tree, on which lies a burning heart. Four female figures are grouped around the anvil. Their designations placed in the four corners allow identification: Invidia (Envy) torments the heart by holding it in the fire with pincers, at the same time Tribulatio (Tribulation), grasping a triple hammer with both hands, strikes the heart with all her might. Tolerantia (Patience) lies at the foot of the scene, her head resting on her left bent arm, while Spes (Hope) points to the sky with her index finger raised and her gaze lifted. Raindrops are falling from a cloud to bring relief to the tortured heart.


Cast silver medal 1551, by Dietrich Schro.    Ø 44,6 mm, 39,28 g.   Habich I,2 1697; Stemper 69.
Obv.:   ✱OTTOHENRICVS.COMES.PALAT.RHE.V.BAIORIE.DVX.ÆTA.XLIX.
Bust with flat hat to the left.
Rev.:   ✱ IN DOMINO CONFIDO· ANNO SALVTIS·M.D.LI. ✱ CVM TEMPORE. Ꮺ
"In God I trust. In the year of salvation 1551. All in good time."   -   Double helmeted coat of arms.

Otto-Henry became Elector Palatine in 1556.
This had an effect on the title and the coat of arms:


Cast silver medal 1558 by Dietrich Schro.    Ø 44 mm, 27,9 g.  Habich 1706; Stemper 73; Scher 121.
Probably on the award of the electoral dignity by Emperor Ferdinand I.

Obv.:   ✱OTTO HENRICVS·D·G·CO·MES PALATINVS RHENI ELECTOR ÆTATIS·LVI Ꮺ
Bearded bust portrait of the 56-year-old corpulent Otto-Henry with decorated clothing and beret half-left.
Rev.:   ✱IN DOMINO CONFIDO·ANNO·SALVTIS·M·D·LVIII·CVM TEMPORE
"In God I trust. In the year of salvation 1558. All in good time."
Three coats of arms - Palatinate, Electoral Palatinate (orb), Bavaria - helmeted with rich helmet covers.
A ribbon with: MD - Z (Otto-Henry's motto: "Mit Der Zeit" = "With the Time")

The following medal is smaller and bears a different date.


Silver medal 1559 by Dietrich Schro (?)     Ø 32,5 mm, 12,88 g.   Habich I,2 1705; Stemper 74.
Obv.:   OTTO HENRICVS·D·G·CO M ES PALATINVS RHEN·ELECTOR·ÆTATIS·LVI ⚛   -   similar as before.
Rev.:   IN DOMINO CONFIDO·ANNO·SALVTIS·M·D·LVIIII·CVM TEMPORE ⚛   -   similar as before.

Compare the Portrait c. 1535 by Peter Gertner [36x34cm, ink pen, watercolour and opaque colours on parchment, Würth Collection, exhibited in the Johanniterhalle in Schwäbisch Hall],
as well as the
Alabaster bust 1556/59 by D. Schro(?), height/width/depth:16/16/16 cm, Louvre, Paris (cast in Heidelberg).

Philip I the Warlike, Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg, 1503-1548 (Philipp der Streitbare)
- Grandson of Philip I the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine, brother of Otto-Henry -
Philip (*1503) was always in the shadow of his 1½ years older brother Otto-Henry. Philip, who had studied, did not succeed in pursuing a clerical career. When they came of age in 1522, both brothers took over the government of the principality of Palatinate-Neuburg created for them. Philip, however, developed in the service of the emperor: he took part in the defence of Vienna against Sultan Suleiman in 1529 and became the emperor's governor in Württemberg in 1530. In 1534 he was unable to prevent Duke Ulrich's return to Württemberg. As a result, Philipp achieved the partition of Palatinate-Neuburg with his brother Otto-Henry in 1535. In 1541, he had to deliver his share of the inheritance to Otto-Henry in order to pay off his high debts. He found refuge in Heidelberg, where he died impoverished in 1548.


Single-sided cast lead medal 1522 on the accession of Philip to the throne,
model by H. Daucher.
Ø 137 mm, 82.53 g.   Habich I, 49; Stemper 84; Köhler Münzbelustigungen, vol.IV, p.25.
PHILIppusS·COmES PAlatinus·RENI·DVX·INFErioris·ET·SVPerIORIS·BAVARIaE M·D·XXII
"Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Lower and Upper Bavaria, 1522"
In the field: NICHTZ VNVERSVCHT (Philip's motto "Nichts unversucht" = "Nothing untried"),
Kneeling portrait of Philip to the left in armour with cap, artist's signature ND on the sword.
Hans Daucher probably created two similar sculptures in Solnhofen limestone on behalf of the guardian, uncle Frederick II, one each to Otto-Henry and Philip on the occasion of their coming of age in 1522. Traces of gilding can still be found on the preserved original relief. The stone relief (Ø 140 mm) served as a model for castings, from which replicas were made.


Single-sided cast silver medal 1527 by Hans Daucher.    Ø 51,9 mm.   Scher 78.
✱ PHILIPpuS·COmES PAlatinus·RENI·DVX·INFErioris· Z[et] ·SVPerIORis·BAVARiae
Bust with broad feathered hat between the date 1527 and age 24.


Cast lead medal 1528, model by Matthes Gebel.    Ø 42 mm.
Habich 985; Stemper 89; Köhler Münzbelustigungen vol.IV, p.281.

Obv.:  PHILIPPVS·COmes·PAlatinus·RHEni - DVX·BAIOariae·ZC[=et]·NAtus·ANnos·XXV·  -  Bust right.
Rev.:   ECIAMSI OCCIDERIT ME IN IPSO SPERABO MDXXVIII
"Surely God will kill me, yet I trust in him. 1528" (Job 13, verse 15).
Coat of arms (Palatinate/Bavaria) with two helmets: lion between buffalo horns as well as wings.


Cast silver medal 1541/1535 by Meister des Kardinal Albrecht.    Ø 52 mm, 60,60 g.
Habich 1840; Stemper 92; Exter II,332,65.

Obv.:   TE·AMO·VT·PROPRIAM·ANIMAM·AN·M·D·XLI   "Ich liebe dich, eigenes Leben, Jahr 1541"
Bearded bust with beret, richly embroidered clothing and collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece to the right.

Rev.:  PHILIPS·VON·GOTS GNADEN·PFALCZGRAF - B·REIN·HERCZOG·I·NIDERN·V·OBERN·BAIRN·S·   -   Double-helmeted, engraved Palatine-Bavarian coat of arms, surrounded by the collar of the Golden Fleece with the Jewel.
Top of the field: NICHTS - VNVER - SVCHT (motto "Nichts unversucht" = "Nothing untried"),
between the helmets 1535.
Philip had received the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1532.


Cast Silver medal 1541 by Meister des Kardinal Albrecht.     Ø 52,5 mm.
Habich 1841; Stemper 93 u. S.99; Exter II,332,64.

Portrait to the left   //   Coat of arms now without motto and without date.

Further four sons of Philip the Upright followed on the clerical career.

Philip, 1498-1541 Bishop of Freising and 1517-41 Bishop of Naumburg
- Second son of Philip the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
As the second son, Philip (*1480) was destined for a clerical career at an early age. After the resignation of his younger brother Ruprecht, Philipp took over the bishopric of Freising in 1498/99. There he received the priestly and episcopal ordination in 1507, which other high noble office holders gladly renounced. His efforts to obtain the bishoprics of Trier and Augsburg were unsuccessful. In 1517, he additionally received the bishopric of Naumburg, where he appointed governors.
He mediated in the Landshut War of Succession (1504-06), strove for church reform, was able to prevent successes of the Reformation and master peasant unrest. The humanistically educated bishop promoted the Renaissance in southern Germany. On the cathedral hill he had the Philippsschloss built, named after him.


Gildet cast medal 1521 (probably by Loy Hering).     Ø 52 mm, 45,40 g.   Habich 91; Sellier 1.
Obv.:  PHILIPPVS EPS FRISINGEN PALATINVS RHEN R C XLI ANNVM AGENS HANC EFFIGIEM HABER   -   Bust to the left with cap and fur-trimmed skirt in arched circle.
Rev.:   FAC ME SICVT VNVN EX MERCENARIIS TVIS (acorn) MDXXI.
Quartered coat of arms Freising (moor's head) / Naumburg (key and sword crossed),
quartered central shield Palatine (lion) / Bavaria (lozenges).
Compare the gold medal 1521, photo by Sailko for Wikipedia, without any further details.


Gold medal 1526, model by Friedrich Hagenauer.     Ø 35,1 mm, 17,59 g.
Sellier 5, Habich 448.


Woodcut, 1525-27 by Friedrich Hagenauer, lime wood, 58,5 x 41,3 cm.
Berlin, State Museums, Sculpture Collection.
Friedrich Hagenauer (c. 1499-1546), son of a sculptor, cut the models for his mostly one-sided cast medals in wood. Of his approximately 250 medals, about 40 wooden models have survived. The inscription was probably added directly into the mould.
The relief of Count Palatine Philipp was probably created during Hagenauer's stay in Munich in 1525-27.

George, 1513-1529 Bishop of Speyer
- fifth son of Philip the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
George (*1486) became cathedral provost of Mainz at the age of 15, provost of St. Donatian in Bruges in 1502, then parish priest in Hochheim and Lorch. In 1513 he finally became Bishop of Speyer.
After studying in Heidelberg in 1514, George received priestly ordination and episcopal consecration in 1515.

copyright: Munich, Staatliche Münzsammlung
Touch the image with the mouse pointer to see the back.
Cast bronze medal 1520 by Hans Schwarz.   Ø 69 mm.
Habich I,1 214; Stemper 34; Kastenholz 54A.

Source: Wettstreit in Erz, Porträtmedaillen der dt. Renaissance, No.103, with associated text by Hermann Maué.
Obv.:   GEORgius Dei Gratia EPiscopu SPIRENsis COmes PAlatinus RhEni DVX BAVAriae
ANNo AETtatis XXXIII MCCCCC / XX   "George, by the Grace of God Bishop of Speyer,
Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, in the 33rd year of his life, 1520."
Portrait in fur-lined coat. Only the biretta gives a vague indication of a spiritual position.

Rev.:   SPES MEA - IN DEVM   "My hope in God"
The Spes in its garment billowed by strong winds gives the impression of a fully sculptured precious sculpture. The 'Hope' turns to God for assistance in stormy times.
Count Palatine Georg left Speyer in december 1518 because of an epidemic and spent the following months with his brother Count Palatine Friedrich in Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. On his journey there, he probably stopped off in Nuremberg and made contact with Hans Schwarz, who first portrayed him in charcoal. This drawing is preserved in the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett. The earliest portrait side is dated 1519. In the following year, the portrait side of the medal was combined with different reverse sides. This also includes the medal presented here, which in the inscription states 1520 as the year of its creation and George's age as 33. The bishop was 34 years old on 10 February 1520. This means that the medal was created in Nuremberg before 10 February 1520, shortly before the Nuremberg council expelled Hans Schwarz from the city on 3 March 1520. This medal is thus probably one of the last works by Schwarz to be created in Nuremberg.     [H. Maué]

Henry IV, Bishop of Worms (1523-52), Utrecht & Freising
- sixth son of Philip the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
Henry of the Palatinate (*1486, †1552) was the 7th child of Philip the Upright, Elector Palatine. Philip was succeeded as Palatine Elector in 1508 by his son Louis V, who gave his younger brother Henry the provostship of Ellwangen and in 1523 the bishopric of Worms, where he was listed as Bishop Henry IV. Emperor Charles V additionally granted Henry the office of Bishop of Utrecht in 1524. Without being ordained a priest, he also became Bishop of Freising in 1541, after the death of two brothers who had successively held the office.


Single-sided bronze medal 1518 (after 2524) by Hans Schwarz.     Ø 46,2 mm.
Joseph (Worms) 238; Habich I,1 140 Tf.XXI.1; Stemper 39; Kastenholz 32.

HENRICVS·WORmatiae·Et - TRAjectensis·Episcopus·COmes·PAlatinus·REni·ET·BAvariae·DVX·1518
"Henry, Bishop of Worms and Utrecht, Count Palatine on the Rhine and Duke of Bavaria"
Portrait to the left with long, straight-cut hair. The bishop wears a fur coat over his lower garment,
on his head a flat slit cap.
The medal erroneously bears the date 1518. Since Heinrich only became Bishop of Worm in 1523, and was Bishop of Utrecht from 1525 to 1528, and the two titles occur side by side, the date 1528 can fit the medal.     [Joseph, 1906]
An even prettier specimen is in the Münzkabinett Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

John III of the Palatinate, 1507-1538 Administrator at Regensburg
- Seventh son of Philip the Upright, 1476-1508 Elector Palatine -
John (*1487) was destined for an ecclesiastical career. The Bishop of Regensburg Ruprecht II of Palatine-Simmern appointed him his coadjutor. When the bishop died in 1507, the Regensburg cathedral chapter elected John as their postulated successor. The Pope confirmed the election and John was enthroned in the same year. He remained administrator throughout his life, as he was theologically uneducated and did not want to receive higher ordinations.

After a break of 100 years, the city of Regensburg began minting its own coins in 1510. The bishopric of Regensburg followed in 1523. Gold florins (1523), ducats (1526), tens (1527-32), batzen, half-batzen, Regensburg pfennigs and heller were minted. Episcopal coins show a squared coat of arms (diocese, Bavaria and Palatinate) on the obverse and a saint or the double-headed eagle on the reverse. This series of coins was supplemented in 1527 by an outstanding coinage with an extraordinary portrait (occasion unknown):


6 Kreuzer 1527, Regensburg.   Ø 24 mm, 2,7 g.   Emmerig/Kozinowski 9 A/a; Schulten 2839.
Obv.:   ¤IOAN·ADMINISTRATor·RATISBonensis
portrait with beret and cloak to the left between date 15 - ZΛ
Rev.:   OMne·RE - Gnum·IN·S - E·DIV - Isum·DESOlabitur
"Every dominion will perish as soon as it is divided up"
Long cross, in the angles the coats of arms: Palatinate and Bavaria as well as 2x Diocese of Regensburg.
The model is the 6-cross piece introduced by Archduke Sigismund of Tyrol c. 1482 with its hip image on the obverse and the long cross with four coats of arms on the reverse.


One-sided medal n. d. (1520/21) by Hans Schwarz.     Ø 45 mm.
Habich 212, Stemper 40; Kastenholz 92.
Recast. The only surviving original has disappeared.

IOANNES D G CO PAL RENI DVX BAVA ... illegible, possibly: ADMIN RAT

Compare an oil painting c. 1526 by Hans Wertinger [71x47 cm, see Portrait Gallery Bavaria].
as well as a one-sided medal n. d. (1526/27) by Friedrich Hagenauer
[Model and casting in the Staatliche Münzsammlung Munich]
Hagenauer may also have cut the stamps for the 6 Kreuzer piece.

Ref.:
• Allg. und Neue Dt. Biographie online: ADB- und NDB-Artikel über Johann, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.

Ref.:
• Annelise Stemper: Die Medaillen der Pfalzgrafen und Kurfürsten bei Rhein. vol.1: Die Kurlinie. Worms 1997.
• Habich, Georg: Die deutschen Schaumünzen des XVI. Jahrhunderts. I,1 (1929) & I,2 (1931). Munich.
Wettstreit in Erz - Porträtmedaillen der deutschen Renaissance, deutscherkunstverlag.de Berlin 2013
• Emmerig, Hubert / Kozinowski, Otto: Die Münzen und Medaillen der Regensburger Bischöfe und des
    Domkapitels seit dem 16. Jahrhundert.
Stuttgart 1998.
• Werner Gutbrod: Das Pfälzer Wappen - Der Löwe nach links, aber auch nach rechts  NNB 1/1995, S.27f, 30-33.
• Wolfgang Metzger: Ottheinrich von der Pfalz, Rennaissancefürst - Sammler - Mäzen

This page was translated from the German page using deepl.com.

start page Charles V  /  Karl V. TOUR:   Frederick III the Wise of Saxony