start page Charles V TOUR :   Philip I the Handsome

    Paternal grandfather    

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1493-1519
Maximilian was born in 1459, in 1477 he married Mary, heiress of Burgundy, and in 1493 he succeeded his father Frederic III to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1508, in Trieste, he adopted the title "Roman Emperor Elect" as the Venetians prevented him from travelling on to Rome.
Two double weddings arranged for political reasons helped establish the renown of the House of Habsburg. In 1496 his son Philip the Handsome married Joanna of Castile, and in 1515 his grandson Ferdinand married Anna of Hungary. The marriage of his daughter Margaret of Austria to Joanna's brother remained childless as was the marriage of his granddaughter Mary of Hungary to Anna's brother Louis of Hungary. Thus, Spain and Hungary came to Habsburg.
Maximilian was popular and lovingly called "the Last Knight". His domestic achievements were in particular the proclamation of the "Everlasting Peace" and the establishment of the "Imperial Judicial Court" and the "Imperial Districts". The Emperor, always in need of money, had been promised taxes by the estates of the realm but never received them. Luckily, his cousin Sigismund conceded him possession of the Tyrol, which was extremely rich in silver and yielded a much higher revenue than the taxes would have earned him.
In his Austrian lands, Maximilian modelled domestic reforms on the Burgundy way of administration, which he was prevented from doing in the empire. He was interested in literature and the arts and had his own deeds written up and glorified in the book "Weisskunig", an autobiographical novel started around 1516.

The following three "grand réal d'argent" have the same inscriptions. But they are abbreviated differently:
Obv.:   Custodiat Creator Omnium Humilem Servum Suum
"May the Creator of All protect His humble servant"
Rev.:   Det tibi Matris Virtutem et in Celis Gloriam
"May the Mother give you virtue and glory in Heaven".

Grand réal d'argent n. d. (1487), Flandern.    Ø 35 mm, 7,17 g.  
Specimen from Palais Beaux-Arts Lille, Vernier.937.

Obv.:   (fire steel) CVSTODIAt:CReATOR:OMNIVm:HVMILᗺm'.SᗺRVVm:SVVm'.
Rev.:   (fire steel) DᗺT:TIBI:MaTRis:VIRTVte (fire steel) ᗺT:IN:CᗺLIS:GLORIAm'
Youthful face, some gothic letters, else similar to the following piece.

Grand réal d'argent 1487, Antwerp or Malines.    Ø 33 mm, 7,13 g.   v.G./H.67-3.
Obv.:  ✥CVSTODIAT·CREATOR·OmИIVm·HVMILEm·SERVVm'·SVVm·1487   [Gothic numerals 1ጸ8Λ]
Hip portrait of Emperor Maximilian I with crown and armour, holding the imperial orb in his left hand
and the sword in his right.

Rev.:   (fire steel) DET·TIBI·MATRIS·VirTVTEm (fire steel) ET·IИ·CELIS·GLORIAM
Monogram with initials of Maximilian and Philip;
2x: Flint (fire stone) with sparks arranged in the inner circle near the fire steel.

Grand réal d'argent 1487, Antwerp or Mechelen.    Ø mm, 6,76 g.   Levinson II 93.
Obv.:  ✠CVSTODIAT◦CreATOR◦OmnIuM◦hVmILEm◦Ser'VVm◦SVVm◦1ጸ8Λ
Rev.:   (fire steel) DET◦TIBI◦I[MA]TRIS◦VIr (fire steel) TVTem◦Z[ET]◦In·CELis·GLORIAm'
Hip portrait to the right, else similar as before.
After the death of his wife Maria von Burgundy, Maximilian acted as heir and guardian of their son Philip the Handsome. Maximilian is depicted on the coin as a Roman king, to which he had been crowned in 1485 in order to assert his claim to succeed his father Frederick III. as emperor. Philip the Handsome is not shown, only his initial is on the back. This underscored the Duke of Brabant's subordination to Maximilian, who himself attached great importance to artistically superior coinage that documented his wealth of power. At the time of minting, this grand réal was the largest silver coin in Dutch circulation.

Bronze medal n. d. (1508 or a bit later).     Ø 37,8 mm.   Habich I,2, p.XLVI, no.39.
Obv.:  IMPERATOR CAESAR MAXIMILIAnus·AVGustus·Felix  -  Bust with beret and long hair to the left.
Rev.:  CaESARIS - IMPERIVM  -  Eagle with outstretched wings on globe.
The unknown medalist could be an Italian or a German.
The reverse shows the antique roman coin image of consecratio with the imperial eagle.
The legend CAESARIS IMPERIVM refers to his proclamation as Emperor in Trient on February 4, 1508.

Maximilian's bust on coins

1/4 Guldiner n. d. (1506), Hall.     Ø 28 mm, 7,66 g.   Egg p.126, no.1; M/T -, cf.p.35.
Die cutter: Gian Marco Cavalli.

Obv.:   MAXIMILIANVS·ROMANORum REX (ET)C     (ET) = ET ligated.
Bust with beret and long hair to the left.

Rev.:  ·MONETA·NOVA·COMITATis°·TIROLIS  -  crowned eagle, arms of Austria on the breast.

1/4 Guldiner 1511, Graz.   Mint master B (Bernhard Beheim).     Ø 29 mm, 7,45 g.
Egg p.184 no.7.   Old gilded and reworked.

Obv.:   ·MAX - IMILIANVS·AVGVSTVS+IMP·CAES  -  Crowned bust in armor to the right.
Crowned and haloed double-headed eagle, heart coat of arms Austria/Burgundy.

1/4 Guldiner n. d. (after 1511), Hall (15 Kreuzer).    Ø 27 mm, 7,28 g.  Egg p.126 no.3; M/T 73.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Renaissance-Bust of Maximilian with uncombed hair, crown and unpretentious armour.
Crowned double eagle with the arms of Austria and Burgundy on the breast.
Maximilian's predecessor in Tyrol, Archduke Sigismund, had introduced the 6 Kreuzer and the 12 Kreuzer coins ("Sechser" and "Pfundner"), the half Guldiner and the Guldiner (60 Kreuzer equal a golden Gulden). Maximilian was the first to issue the quarter Guldiner (15 Kreuzer). They were minted in small numbers in Vienna, Hall and Sankt Veit in Carinthia. This beautiful Renaissance coin started a new denomination, the quarter thaler, an important coin type until Maria Theresa's times.

1/4 Guldiner 1515, Sankt Veit (15 Kreuzer).    Ø 28 mm, 7,28 g.  Egg p.192 no.9.
Specimen in the Coin Cabinet, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna.

Vs.:   MAXIMILIAИVS·AVGVST9IMP·CAES·  -  Gekrö. Büste rechts, in Harnisch mit Vlieskette.
Rs.:   ARCHIDVX·KA - RIИTHIE:M·D·X·V·  -  Gekrö. Kaiseradler, Brustschild: Österreich/Burgund.

Sankt Veit in Carinthia minted a similar 1/4 Guldiner 1515,   Ø 28 mm.   Egg p.192 no.9
with the coat of arms of Carinthia under the double eagle.
This specimen is presented in the Interactive catalog of the Coin Cabinet in Vienna.

1/4 Guldiner n. d., Hall in bronze,     Ø 27 mm, 7,80 g.   Egg p.128 no.5; M/T -.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.   Such pieces are known only as trial-strikes in copper [Egg].

Crowned bust in armor to the right, collar of the Golden Fleece.
Crowned shield with imperial double eagle surrounded by the coats of arms of Hungary,
Austria/Burgundy and Tyrol, as well as two firesteels with flints and sparks.

Compare profile portraits of Maximilian.

1/2 Guldiner n. d., Hall.     Ø 35 mm, 19,47 g.   Egg p.124 no.7.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.     Specimen of the Coin Cabinet, KHM in Vienna.

Bust with old facial features to the right, slightly wavy shoulder-length hair, with crown and in armor.
Crowned double-headed eagle with shield Austria|Burgundy on the breast.

Ducat 1516, Sankt. Veit.     Ø 21mm   3,52 g.   Egg p.192 no.4 ; Schulten 3961.
Crowned bust with necklace from the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Quartered shield :  Carinthia (band|3lions), Austria (band), Styria (panther) and Carniola.

Ducat 1517, Sankt Veit.     Ø 21 mm, 3,50 g.   Egg p.192 no.5 (no picture); Friedb.13.

Guldiner 1518, Sankt Veit.    Ø 41 mm, 28,22 g.  Egg 33; Voglh.24(without rosette); Dav.8007.
Obv.: ⚛MAXI·ROManorum·IMperator·ARCHi·DVx·AVSTriae·ET·DOminus·TERrarum·OCCIdentis·ORIentisque·
Bust to the left, with straight long hair, beret and Golden Fleece on fur.
Rev.:  ⚛PLVRIumque·EVROPae·ProVINCIArum REX·ET·PINCEPs9 POTentissimus·1518⚛
Crowned double eagle between coats of arms of Austria and Carinthia (both with ducal hats). Below Styria, Habsburg, Alsace and Carniola. Below Burgundy (with ducal hat) between Austria ob der Ems and Tyrol. Interspersed with fire irons, flint stones and sparks.

Maximilian's "Königsguldiner" and "Kaiserguldiner"
(Maximilian on Guldiner as King or Emperor)

Königsguldiner, 1495, Hall.     Ø 46 mm, 31,67 g.   Egg p.114 no.1; M/T 68; Voglh.7; Dav.8001.
Specimen in the Coin Cabinet KHM in Vienna.   Die cutter: Konrad Koch.

Crowned effigy of the king to the right, with long haired and in armor, with raised sword in his right hand and orb in his left hand, surrounded by a circular frieze of lilies.
Rev.:   One headed royal eagle, on its breast arms of Austria and Tyrol, around 20 arms Wappen of Maximilian's possessions, from the bottom to the right: Hungary (at 6 h), Styria, Carinthia, Upper Austria, Limburg, Brabant (3 h), Alsace, Windic March, Portenau, Pfirt, Habsburg (12 h), Montfort, Kyburg, Nellenburg, Hohenberg, Burgau (9 h), Hainaut, Bohemia, Carniola und Burgundy.
From this extraordinarily rare coinage a second piece is known in Gotha.

Benedikt Burkhart minted more Königsguldiner in Hall 1500-06, but with a changed design.

Königsguldiner, n.d. (1500-06), Hall.     Ø 42 mm.   Egg p.120 no.6; Voglh.9; Dav.8003.
Die cutter: Benedikt Burkhart.

Crowned effigy to the right, in the right hand flower scepter, the left hand holding the sword hilt,
St. Andrew's cross on the chest.

Rev.:   ⁕XP(=Christianissimus)·AC·Λ(=A)liorum·REGnorum·Rex·HEReditarius ·Q(=et)·ARCHIDux·AVstriaE·PLVRIumque·EVROPaE·ProVInciarum·PriИceps·POTEenTIssimus
"Christian and other lands hereditary king and archduke of Austria, most of Europe's countries most powerful prince" (?)
The crowned imperial arms with a nimbated, left-facing eagle, flanked by the crowned coats of arms of Hungary and Austria, below the arms of Burgundy and Habsburg.
In between 4x fire iron, flints and sparks, also 1x the golden fleece at the Order-chain.
Compare the reverse with a Composition of arms by Albrecht Dürer in 1504 [M/T, p.36].
Several variants of Königsguldiner are known, for example with lilied scepter instead of flowered scepter.

After his imperial coronation in 1508 in the cathedral of Trent, Maximilian ordered the production of so-called Kaiserguldiner. They carry adaptations in legend (IMPERATOR) and eagle shield (double eagle). Dies for Kaiserguldiner were made by Ulrich Ursentaler in Hall for coinage after 1511.

Kaiserguldiner n. d. (since 1511), Hall.    Ø 43 mm, 30,57 g.  Egg p.120 no.9; Voglh.11; Dav.8005.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler.

Crowned effigy in armor, holding flower scepter and sword hilt.
"King of most of Europe's countries and mightiest prince"
Crowned arms with double eagle between the crowned arms of Hungary and Austria, below arms of Burgundy and Habsburg. In between three fire-iron with flint and sparks,
two flintstones with sparks at the top of the crown.
In Flanders the emperor demanded 1517 for new dies from Hall for heavy pennies. Hall initially refused because they feared low-quality competition from Antwerp. The Emperor answered that he did not want to coin money, but to use the dies only for commemorative coins to serve as gifts. Then they sent dies, in which a rosette was punched in order to distinguish the new mintage from their old one.
Compare a a specimen minted in Antwerpen (1517) using dies from Hall (Ø 43 mm, 30,39 g - Egg 11; Voglh.12 - M&M Basel: Aukt.91 Nr.797 (3.2001, Slg.Köhlmoos) - 24.000 CHF) and search for differences to the piece from Hall (Egg 9) shown above. They differ only in the rosette, their quality is the same.

Maximilian married in 1477 the hereditary princess Maria of Burgundy (1457-1482).
Maximilian adored his beautiful wife Maria, but they were maried only five years. Two children were born: Philip I the Handsome and Margaret of Austria. Maria died after a riding accident in 1482.

Bronze medal n. d. (c. 1477) by Giovanni Candida.    Ø 48,5 mm.
Domanig Porträtmedaillen 6; Armand II.80.1; Kress Coll.225.

Obv.:   ·MAXIMILIANVS·FRederici·CAESaris·Filius·DVX·AVSTRiae·BVEGVNDiae·
Bust of Maximilian with wreath and long hair to the right.
Bust of Maria of Burgund to thr right, left the crowned Alliance monogram MM.
Giovanni di Candida was an Italian diplomat, historian, cleric and hobby medalist who became secretary at the court of Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1472, then served the married couple before he moved to France in 1480.

The above cast medal served as model for the subsequent hammered piece.

Wedding Guldiner "1479" n. d. (after 1511), Hall.     Ø 44 mm, 30,50 g.
Egg p.158 no.15; M/T 83; Voglh.3.
On the marriage with Mary of Burgundy.   Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Maximilian with wreath between ETA - TIS 19 ("age of 19").
Bust of Maria between ETAT - IS Z0 ("age of 20"), date 1479 at the bottom.
On demand of the emperor the mint of Anwerp made restrikes using dies from Hall, which had been punches with a rosette, see such a restrike from Antwerp (Egg p.158 no.18; Voglh.6).

Compare the similar 7 ducats and the later imitation from Bohemia.

Wedding Guldiner "1479" (after 1511), Hall.  Ø 44 mm, 30,88 g.  Egg p.158 no.17; M/T 84; Voglh.4.
On the marriage with Maria of Burgundy.  Die cutter: Ulrich Ursentaler, Hall.

Bust of Maximilian with wreath at the age of 19 between ETA - TIS·19 / 14 - 79.
Bust of Maria headdressed with a burgundian hennin between ETA - TIS·Z0 ("age of 20").
Both Wedding Guldiners "1479" show Maximilian being 19 years old and Maria at 20. However, she was 22 years old in 1457. Both commemoratives show effigies of 1479 although they were minted after 1511, when Maximilian's second wife Bianca Maria Sforza - for whom he had felt little affection - had also died.

See medals on Maximilian together with his second wife Bianca Maria Sforza.

Maximilian's commemorative Guldiner

Maximilian liked commemorative coins with his own portrait, took interest in their design and gave them away as presents in order to promote his renown. The coins were much sought after by members of the nobility. They were issued in the weight of a Guldiner or its multiples and therefore rank as coins, not medals, even though they were not used as currency. Unlike small cast medals, these hammered pieces were intended for wide distribution. Maximilian's commemorative coins were artistically and technically a remarkable achievement of the Hall mint. They were minted there on the emperor's direct order and listed as "external expenditure".

Double Schauguldiner 1505, Hall.   Die cutter: Benedikt Burkhart.     Ø 45 mm, 47,96 g.
Egg p.150, no.2; M/T 78; Voglh.13var.

Crowned effigy in armor to the left, scepter in his left hand, sword hilt in his right hand.
Rev.:   +XPIA·>·REGNOR·REX·HERS QZ ARCHIDVX·AVSTRE·PLVRIMAR·QZ ·EVROP·PROVICIAR·PNS·DVX·ET·D9   = Christianitatis caeterorumque regnorum rex heresque archidux austriae plurimarumque europae provinciarum princeps dux et dominus =
"The Hereditary King of Christian as well as other Realms, Archduke of Austra and of very many lands Prince, Duke and Lord".
Crowned shield with the imperial eagle, surrounded by the Order of the Golden Fleece necklace; on top gothic ornaments and the date ·1·5· - ·0·5·; to both sides the crowned arms of Old Hungary and Austria; below the smaler arms of Old-Burgundy and Habsburg.
The reverse is still designed under gothic influence. The obverse is already a nice work of the beginning Renaissance. The masterful portrait in high relief and the incident to let the bent left arm extend into the legend, testify the great skill of Benedict Burkhart.
The Coin Cabinet KHM Vienna presents a magnificent specimen in their Online Cataloge.

Schauguldiner n. d., Hall.   Dies by Ulrich Ursentaler.    Ø 39 mm, 36,11 g.
Egg p.152 no.7; Winter 30.
Specimen in the Coin Cabinet, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna.

Hüftbild r., Mitrenkone, Harnisch, Vliescollane, hält mit der R. Griff eines Schwertes und stützt diese Hand auf unbekrönten Kaiseradler, in der L. Szepter.

Schauguldiner 1516, Hall. Dies by Ulrich Ursentaler, with "Schüsselrand"*).   Ø 38 mm, 32,70 g.
Egg S.154 Nr.10; M/T 80; Voglh.15; Winter 32/1.

Gekrö. Büste links mit Vliesscollane, darunter Jz. 1516.
Geharnischter Reiter blickt frontal, trägt Federbusch auf dem Helm und holt zum Streich mit dem Schwert aus, während sein Pferd über ein Gefallenen springt, der noch Schwert und Hellebarde hält. Vor dem Reiter ein Soldat mit geschulterten Lanz, dahinter ein Engel, der das gekrönte Kaiserwappen hällt. Unte nach rechts die Wappen von Alt-Ungarn, Alt-Burgund, Habsburg und Österreich.
*) "Schüsselrand" means:
The rim is elevated and both coin sides are inclined inwards in the area of the lettering.

Schauguldiner n. d. (1517-19), Hall.    Ø 39 mm, 28,51 g.  Egg p.154 no.9; M/T -; Voglh.14.
Die cutter: Ulrich Ursenthaler.   Original gilding of the time.
The legends are located on a dished edge sloping inward.

Obv.:   MAX·ROmanorum·IMPerator·SEMPER·AVᗡVSTus·ARCHIDVX·AVSTriae
Armored bust with Archducal crown to the right.
"of very many European countries the most powerful King and Prince"
Field completely filled with medieval design: The Emperor rides with a sword in his right hand; before him a servant with lance; under the horse a fallen warrior with sword and halberd; below the arms of Hungary, Burgundy, Habsburg and Austria; top left an angel with the imperial shield.
High relief commemorative "Schautaler" with edges inclined inwards was a speciality of the mint of Hall.
These pieces were produced using precast planchets.
They were partly delivered gold-plated, as in our specimen.

Double Schauguldiner 1519, Hall.   Dies by Ulrich Ursentaler with so called "Schüsselrand".
Ø 46 mm, 53,91 g.     Domanig 14; Egg S.36; Winter 27.

Gekröntes und geharnischtes Brustbild r.

Gekrönter Adlerschild, umher die Kette des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies, zu den Seiten die Wappen von Ungarn, Österreich, Burgund und Habsburg, oben die geteilte Jahreszahl 15 - 19.

On his death

Schauguldiner 1519, St. Veit an der Glan, on the death of the emperor.   Ø ca.35? mm, 24,00 g.
Egg p.197 o.36; Probszt-Ohstorff, compare 5 (32 mm); Schulten 3975; Köhlers Münz-B.1(1729)185.

Obv.:   ❀MAX Imperator·Romanorum·C·IZ·DIE MENSIS·IANVARII·ETATIS·SVE·ANO·59·FELICITer / ❀IN·DomiNO·OBDORM - IVIT·ANO·CHRIS·I5I9   "... asleep on the 12th day of January at the
age of 59 in 1519"   -   Bust with beret and Golden Fleece to the left.

Rev.:   QVI·FVERAS· / SEMPER·PATIENS· / PLENVSqVE LABORum / NVNC·REqVIE·SVP / ERVM·MAXIMIL / IANE·CVBA     "You always went into your duties and your day's work was completed. Now, Maximilian, rest and enjoy the peace of the heavenly ones"   between floral threads, above the arms of Austria, below the arms of Carinthia.
Maximilian I died on January 12, 1519 during a trip from Innsbruck to Linz in Wels Castle. He staged his death and had always carried a coffin with him since four years before that. Shortly before his death, he put on the mortuary shirt himself and received the final unction. He was buried in his baptistery in Wiener Neustadt, his heart was buried separately in the sarcophagus of his first wife Maria of Burgundy in Bruges.

Partially gold plated cast medal 1531, posthumously.    Ø 22 mm, 4,30 g.  Katz 44 Winter 79.
Dies by Hieronymus Magdeburger, Joachimsthal (Jáchimov).

Rev.:   Maximilian on horseback to the right with attendants. Exergue: ·M·D·XXXI

Sechser: a coin intended for normal circulation

Sechser, n. d., Hall.     Ø 23 mm, c. 3 g.   Egg p.132 B3
Obv.:   +MOnᗺTA·ARᗭhIDVᗭIS:AVSTRIᗺ     in gothic letters.
Effigy in armor with archducal hat, scepter in his right hand and left hand on the hilt.

Rev.:   +Aᗭ·ᗭO - MITA - TVS·TI - ROLIS   -   long cross,
in the angles: coat of arms of Tirol (eagle), Hungary (crowned), Austria and Burgundy.
The "Sechser" (6 Kreuzer) was introduced by Archduke Sigismund of Tyrol as part of his "great currency reform" in 1482. This and other silver denominations were intended to closed the gap between the "Kreuzer" and the gold florins (valued 60 Kreuzer). The "Sechser" was so popular and so widespread that it was coined almost unchanged for more than a century.

More coins and medals with Maximilian's effigy:
  - Schilling 1497 from Nördlingen [only in German]
  - Double Schauguldiner 1509, Hall as an European emperor with several arms of pretension [in German]
  - Teston 1516 issued during a siege in Verona [only in German]
  - "grandson-thaler" 1518, Sankt Veit, with his grandsons on the reverse
  - Schauguldiner n. d. (1506), Hall, celebrating his wedding with Bianca Maria Sforza.
  - Verona, 1509-1516

• Erich Egg: Die Münzen Kaiser Maximilians I. - Innsbruck, n. d. (1969)
• H.Moser / H.Tursky [M/T]: Die Münzstätte Hall in Tirol 1477-1665 - Innsbruck 1977
• R. Voglhuber: Taler und Schautaler des Erzhauses Habsburg 1484-1896 - Frankfort 1971.
• Heinz Winter: Die Medaillen und Schaumünzen ... Haus Habsburg im Münzkabinett des KHMs Wien,
    vol.I: Friedrich III. and Maximilian I. - Vienna 2013.

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