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Imperial city of Lübeck
Lübeck (lat. Lubeca), an imperial city since 1226, became a leading member of the Hansa. Its law system was used by many other cities at the Baltic Sea.
The coinage of thalers began in 1502 and lasted until 1776. The first thalers show the patron St. John on the reverse. Between 1528 and 1546 the city replaced the patron by the emperor on their thalers.

Guldiner of 1528.     Ø 42 mm; fineness: 0,9375; 29,42 g.   Behrens 81; Dav.9395.
a "silver gulden" equivalent to a gulden in gold, issued in accordance with the imperial mint order of 1524.

Obv.:   (lily) IMPERIALIS (lily) CIVITATIS (lily) LVBICENSIS (lily) INSIGNE 15Z8
The lily between the words is Statius Wessel's mint master mark.
city's coat of arms (double eagle with shield on the breast).

Rev.:   (lily) CAROLVS (lily) QUINTVS (lily) ROMANORUM (lily) IMPERAT.
Effigy of the young emperor with open mouth, hat, coat and the Golden Fleece on the breast.
This is the oldest thaler with the effigy of Charles V.
The beardless effigy surprises as it is very likely that Charles had already grown a beard since 1521. It was supposed to let him appear more grown up and to improve on his rather unpleasant profile. A medal of Hans Schwarz (1492-1521) with a portrait of the emperor at the age of 20 served as model for this effigy:

uniface cast medal in lead 1521   by Hans Schwarz with monogram HS.   Ø 72,5mm
Habich 229; Bernhart 10; Kastenholz 107.

ᕠ EFFIGIES KAROLI QUINTI ᕠ ·M·D·X·X·I·   ·HS· (Hans Schwarz).

Nikolaus Brömse was mayor and anti-reform leader in Lübeck since 1520. In 1530 tumults made him flee from the city. He returned in 1535 thanks to the Emperor's help. Brömse praised the Emperor by issuing the so called "Brömsethaler" in 1537. The legend includes a horse-fly because the German word "Bremse" reflects the mayor's name. Since then, all thalers of the city of Lübeck carry a mayor's mark.

Thaler 1537 (1st "Brömsethaler").   Silver-Galvano, Ø 39 mm, 29,41 g.
Behrens 88; Coll.Dummler 149; Dav.9397.

in the field: city's coat of arms (double eagle with shield on the breast)
Rev.:   (1) CAROLVS (2) QVINTVS (2) CESAR·SEmPer·AuGustus
Emperors bust with cap, coat and order of the Golden Fleece.
two marks in the legend: (1) = horse-fly = mark of Nikolaus Brömse
and (2) = leaf = mark of mint master Jürgen Bockhold.

Model for the emperor's effigy was the following medal of Friedrich Hagenauer from about 1530:

uniface medal 1530 of Friedrich HagenauerHabich, Deutschen Schaumünzen, p.84, no.558.

Thaler 1537 (3rd "Brömsethaler").   Ø 42 mm, 28,5 g.   Behrens 90a ; Dav.9398
"Money from imperial city of Lübeck".
The first mark in the legend (a: leaf) refers to the mint master J. Bockholt and
the second mark (b: horse-fly) refers to the mayor Nikolaus Brömse.
A knight holds the imperial shield (double eagle)
"Emperor Charles V, a ceasar second to none"
Emperor's bust with cap, coat and order of the Golden Fleece.
Compare an crude imitation with a flower in the place of the horse-fly mark.

Taler 1537 (2nd Brömsethaler).   Ø 41 mm, 28,78 g.
Behrens 89; Coll.Dummler 150; Dav.9398(Obv.)/9400(Rev.)

Obs. as before   //   Rev. like next thaler.

Nikolaus Brömse died in 1543 but thalers with the emperor's effigy were issued until 1546.

Thaler 1544.   Ø 41 mm; 0,903 fine; 28,7 g.   Behrens 91; Coll.Dummler 156; Dav.9400.
mark (a) refers to the mint master J. Bockhold ,   mark (b) refers to the mayor Gotthard von Höveln
St. John with lamb, book and cross-flag behind imperial shield (double eagle); dividing date 15-44
Emperor' bust with cap, coat, Golden Fleece and hands.

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