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Order of the Golden Fleece on coins and medals

Register of persons

2.   Order sign on coins of appointed knights

here Part 2c :  Italy, Spain, ..., Transylvania
d'Avalos in Vasto and Pescara :   Alfonso II d'Avalos, 1502-46 Marchese di Vasto & Pescara
Ferdinando Francesco II d'Avalos, 1539-1571 Marchese di Pescara 1546-1571 Marchese di Vasto
Cesare Michelangelo d'Avalos, 1704-1729 Marchese di Vasto
Barbiano in Belgiojoso :   Antonio Barbiano, 1769-1779 Imperial Prince of Belgiojoso
Doria in Genoa :   Andrea Doria (*1468 †1560)
Este in Modena :   Cesare d’Este, 1598-1628   Francesco III d'Este, 1737-1780
Ercole III d'Este, 1780-1803
Farnese in Parma and Piacenza :   Alessandro Farnese, 1586-1592
Pico in Mirandola :   Alessandro I Pico, 1602-37
Della Rovere in Urbino :   Guidobaldo II della Rovere, 1538-1574
Francesco Maria II della Rovere, 1574-1621 & 1623-24
Trivulzio in Retegno :   Ercole Teodoro Trivulzio, 1656-1664
Antonio Teodoro Trivulzio, 1676-1678
Spain :   Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba (1507-1582)
Transylvania :   Sigismund Báthory, 1581-1598

continue to Part 2d :   Austrian new princes
or go back to Part 1a :   Beginning of the Order


d'Avalos in Vasto and Pescara
The originally Aragonese d'Avalos family united with d'Aquino and rose to become one of the most powerful high noble families in the Kingdom of Naples. She took over high offices and small territories in Italy, including Vasto in Abruzzo on the Adriatic Sea.

Ferdinando Francesco I, 1490-1525 Marchese di Pescara
Born around 1490 in Naples as a nobleman of Aragon and Naples, he fought in Italy for King Ferdinand of Aragón against the French and Venetians. In imperial service he played a decisive role in the victory over King Francis I of France in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. He was then appointed chief general of the imperial army in Italy, but died at the end of 1525 as a result of war wounds. He was succeeded in Pescara by his cousin Alfonso II.

Alfonso II d'Avalos, 1502-46 Marchese di Vasto and 1525-46 Marchese di Pescara
Alfonso, who called himself d'Avalos d'Aquino, also added the provenience of his wife Maria d'Aragona to his full name. He followed in the footsteps of his cousin Ferdinando Francesco I and became one of the most important commanders of Emperor Charles V. In 1538-46 he was Spanish governor of Milan. In 1531 he became a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Cast lead medal n. d. by Cesare da Bagno.     Ø 62 mm, 77,43 g.
Specimen in The British Museum, London.   Attwood (2003, It.Medals in British Pub.Collections) 128a, p.142.
Medal on Alfonso II. and his son Ferdinando Francesco II.

Obv.:   ·ALF·DAVL·MAR·GV·CAP·G·CAR·V·IMP   "Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquis of Vasto,
Captain General of Emperor Charles V"  -  Bust left, Golden fleece on a ribbon.

Rev.:   ·FER·FRAN·D·AVA - DE·AQV·MAR·PISC·III   "Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos d'Aquino,
3rd Margrave of Pescara"  -  Bust right, Golden Fleece on the Breastplate,
at the bottom: CES·DA·BAGNO (Cesare da Bagno, sculptor and medallist, †1564)
The two sides fit together stylistically, but not from the temporal point of view of the title and the awarding of the order.
Because of the awarding of the order, the medal must be dated to 1555 at the earliest.

Ferdinando Francesco II d'Avalos, 1539-1571 Marchese di Pescara,
1546-1571 Marchese di Vasto
Born in Ischia in 1530 as son of Alfonso II d'Avalos, he became a confidant of King Philip II of Spain, who appointed him his representative at the Council of Trent. In 1560-63 he was governor of the Duchy of Milan, and from 1568 until his death he was Spanish viceroy of Sicily. In 1555 he was knighted with the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Maria d'Aragona was his mother. Her son's full name was "Francesco Fernando d'Avalos d'Aquino d'Aragona".

Cast bronze medal n. d. (ca.1560) by Leone Leoni     Ø 59 mm, 46,43 g.
Specimen in The British Museum, London,   Attwood (2003, Italian Medals) 59a, p.110.

"Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos d'Aquino, third Marquis of Pescara"
Bust right, bearded, wearing an ornamented cuirass, the Order of the Golden Fleece, and a sash.

Rev.:   NON SIMPLEX - VIRTVTIS OPVS   "The work of virtue is not simple"
Standing figure of Minerva, wearing antique armour and helmet, holding in her left hand a shield bearing a gorgon head, and in her right a spear and an olive branch.

Cast bronze medal n. d. (ca.1560-70) by Annibale Fontana (1540-87)     Ø 70 mm.
Specimen in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.   Armand I, 253,1; Kress 442; Pollard 508.

Obv.:   FERDINANDus·FRANciscus· - DAVAL   -   Armoured bust right, Order of the Fleece on ribbon.
Rev.:  QVAMVIS CVSTODITA DRACONE   " Although in custody if a dragon"
Fernando as Hercules, his foot on the dragon, plucking the apples of the Hesperides;
landscape and citues in background.

Cesare Michelangelo d'Avalos, 1704-1729 Marchese di Vasto
Four generations later, the last of the House d'Avalos in Vasto
Cesare Michelangelo d'Avalos, born 1667 in Vasto, lived four generations after Ferdinando Francesco II d'Avalos. He inherited Pescara, Vasto and other privileges and dominions of the family. He received the Order of the Golden Fleece still under King Charles II of Spain. In the dispute over the Spanish succession in Spain in 1700, he took sides with the Habsburgs. Declared a rebel, Cesare had to flee from Vasto and seek the protection of the imperial envoy in Rome. He was then appointed to the Viennese court, where on 2 March 1704 he was confirmed the title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, together with the right to mint his own coins. In 1713, d'Avalos was able to return to his country. In the treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714), the final surrender of the Kingdom of Naples to Emperor Charles VI of Habsburg was sanctioned. On 24.10.1723, Cesare presented - as the representative of Emperor Charles VI - the Order of the Golden Fleece to Prince Fabrizio II Colonna, framed by a festival lasting several days.
As first and simultaneously last owner of coin sovereignty in Vasto, Cesare issued representative coins with his portrait minted in Augsburg (1706 and 1707). The dies were cut by Philipp Heinrich Müller (1654-1719). Holzmair notes a historical and procedural connection with the "Austrian New Princes".

Zecchino 1706.     Ø 21 mm, 3,46 g.  CNI 2; RM I 4,3; Friedb.1213.
Obv.:   CÆSar·DAVALos·DE AQVINo·DE ARAGona·MARchio·PIScariae&VADTI Dei·Gratia·Sacro Romano·Impero·PRinceps·  -  Bust right, Golden Fleece at end of Order chain.
Rev.:   DOMINVS REGIT ME·ANNO·1706  -  crowned coat of arms with many fields,
the chain of the Order with Golden Fleece.

Tallero 1706, Augsburg.     Ø 41 mm, 29,16 g.  CNI XVIII 4; RM I 7,9; Dav.1523.
Specimen of the University Library of Leipzig

Rev.:   DOMINVS REGIT ME·ANNO·1706·   "The Lord guides me"
Coat of arms, all around it the chain of the Order with the Golden Fleece, underlaid with crossed cannons and swords. Next to the fleece a pine cone as mint mark for Augsburg.

"Blessed is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the ungodly"
In the qurtered coat of arms, a framed tower, the d'Avalos family coat of arms, stands in the first place.

M.Ravegnani Morosini [RM]:  Signorie e principati - monete italiane con ritratto 1450-1796 1984,vol.I p.1-8
E.Holzmair :  "Monete di Ostentazione" der italienischen Reichsfürsten NZ 83 (1969) 58-81, Tf.XLIX,L

Barbiano in Belgiojoso
The Barbiano family received the county of Belgiojoso near Parma as a fief in the 15th century.

Antonio Barbiano, 1769-1779 Imperial Prince of Belgiojoso
Born in Milan in 1693, he served the Habsburgs who ruled the Duchy of Milan at the time: first as commissioner in Trento, ambassador in Parma, then in Modena, then as private councillor to Maria Theresa, for whom he also fought in the Seven Years' War. In 1763 he received the Golden Fleece and in 1769 the Imperial Princely dignity with the associated right to mint coins, as was customarily granted to new Austrian princes. 620 ducats and 430 thalers backdated to 1769 were minted in Vienna.

Scudo 1769, Vienna.     Ø 43 mm, 28,08 g.  RM I 13,2; Dav.1356.
Bust in armour to the right with Order on ribbon around the neck.
Oval coat of arms held by two lions on ermine cloak, chain of order with the Golden Fleece hung around the coat of arms, crown above, two flags in the background.

Emilio Motta :  Le Monete dei Principi di Barbiano di Belgiojoso. RIN vol.24 (1911) p.19-47
E. Holzmair :  "Monete di Ostentazione" der italienischen Reichsfürsten NZ 83 (1969) 62f

Doria in Genua
Andrea Doria (*1468 †1560), Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Fleet
The Genoese Andrea Doria was initially a mercenary for various lords. For Genoa he fought against rebels in Corsica in 1503 and 1506 and against the Turks in 1513. In 1527 he won Genoa for the French, in whose service he had been since 1522. After a quarrel with the French, he switched to the side of Emperor Charles V, who assured him of Genoa's freedom. In 1528, Doria made a triumphal entry into Genoa, which had been liberated from the French. He worked for the good of the city, renewed the constitution, but himself exercised power in a dictatorial manner until old age. Doria's fleet ferried the emperor and his court from Barcelona to Genoa in 1529, on the way to the coronation in Bologna. Doria was extremely successful as commander-in-chief of the imperial fleet. In 1535 he led Charles' attack on Tunis, and in 1541 he saved the imperial troops who had undertaken an expedition against Algiers against his advice at an unfavourable time of year.

Bronze medal (1541) by Leone Leoni.   Ø 41 mm.   Armand I 164,9; Bargello 712; Kress 431.
Obv.:   ANDREAS - DORIA·Pater·Patriae   "Andreas Doria, Father of the Fatherland"
Bust with Order of the Golden Fleece and antique cuirass, behind trident, dolphin below.

Rev.:   Galley with rowers, in front boat with two men rowing ashore,
on the lower left a fisherman on land.
The small rowing boat is interpreted as the one that brought Leoni, freed from the galley fron, back to land.
On some specimens of the medal the Order of the Golden Fleece, which had been awarded to Andrea Doria in 1531, is missing. It seems that Doria objected to the absence of the famous order.

Dukes from the House of Este in Modena
The Este dynasty hold the title of "Margraves of Este" since 1171. In the 13th century they established themselves in Ferrara. They also became rulers in Modena and Reggio Emilia.
Cesare d'Este, 1598-1628 Duke of Modena and Reggio
The childless Duke Alfonso II d'Este designated his ilegitimate cousin Caesar as his successor. This was recognised by Emperor Rudolf II, but not by Pope Clement VIII. Ferrara, a papal fief, was thus lost to the House of Este.
Cesare (born 1552) was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1605.

Scudo 1613, Modena.     Ø 37 mm, 26,74 g.   CNI 81; RM I 197,11; MIR 681; Dav.4026.
Obv.:   CAESAR DVX MVTinae REGio EtC
Bust left, shoulder to front. Exergue: LS (Ludovico Selvatico, mint master).
Crowned family coat of arms surrounded by the chain of the Order with the Golden Fleece.
Exergue: date 1613.

The coat of arms of the house Este consists of a silver eagle on a blue background.
• In 1431 Niccolò III (1393-1441) received the 'Three golden lily
   framed on a blue background' from King Charles VII of France
   as increase of his arms (see the ducat above).
• In 1452 Borso (1450-71) was proclaimed Duke of Modena and
   Reggio by Emperor Frederick III. By this, the arms increased
   with the crowned double eagle (see coin below).
   The family coat of arms became to be an inescutcheon.
• In 1471, Pope Paul II elevated Borso to the Duke of Ferrara and
   the Vicar of Ferrara. The arms increased by the crossed keys in
   the middle column.
• During Ercole's II time (1534-59) the tiara is added above the keys.
   The result is presented on the subsequent ducat of Alfonso II.

Giorgino, Modena.   Ø 22 mm, 2,61 g.   CNI IX 249,197; RM I 204,26.
Vs.:   CAESAR: - DVX: - MVT REG C:   -   Draped bust right, Golden Fleece.
Kneeling saint half right with crozier blessing the city at his feet with his left hand.

Francesco I d'Este, 1629-1658 Duke of Modena
Francesco I d'Este (*1610) was awarded the (Spanish) Order of the Golden Fleece in 1638, but apparently did not have it depicted on coins.

Francesco III d'Este, 1737-1780 Duke of Modena
Born 1698, bearer of the Order since 1731 (austrian branch).

Scudo 1739, Modena.   Ø 39 mm, 28,57 g.   CNI 18; RM I 248,1; MIR 842; Dav.1392.
Obv.:   FRANCISCUS·III·MUTinae·REGii·MIRandulae·DVX  -  Bust right, below date 1739.
Rev.:   VETERIS MONU - MENTUM DECORIS   "A monument to ancient honour"
Crowned family coat of arms in baroque cartouche surrounded by a chain, the Golden Fleece below.
Eagle with outstretched wings under the crown.

Rinaldo d'Este, 1694-1702 & 1706-1737 Duke of Modena
Born 1655, bearer of the (austrian) Order of the Golden Fleece since 1712, †1737.

Ercole III d'Este, 1780-1803 Duke of Modena
Born 1727, bearer of the (austrian) Order since 1753.

Tallero (3 Scudi) 1782, Modena.   Ø 40 mm.   Varesi 857; RM I 253,1; Dav.4031.
Obv.:   HERCVLES·III·Dei.Gratia.MVTinae.REGii·MIRandulae·Et Carnuti·DVX·
Bust left, two orders visible, a third order concealed, LS on arm section.
Rev.:   PROXIMA SOLI 1782   "Nearest the sun"  -  Crowned escutcheon, around it two chains of orders, below the Golden Fleece between two other orders.

Farnese in Parma and Piacenza

Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza 1547-1586
Ottavio Farnese was grandson of Pope Paul III and son-in-law of Emperor Charles V, was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1546, but did not show this on his coins.
Alessandro Farnese, 1586-1592 Duke of Parma and Piacenza
Born in 1545 to Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma, Alessandro grew up at the Spanish court of Philip II, together with Don Carlos and Don Juan de Austria. He had a distinguished military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain and took part in the Battle of Lepanto (1571). After several notable predecessors (Margaret of Parma, Duke of Alba, Don Juan) had failed as governors in the Netherlands in the spirit of King Philip, Alessandro Farnese was able to win back at least the Catholic south of the Netherlands from 1577 onwards with skill and force.
In 1585 he was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece. In 1586 he inherited the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza from his father.

Scudo 1592, Piacenza.     Ø 40 mm, 32,02 g.   CNI IX 615,28; RM I 287,28; Dav.8358.
Obv.:   ALEX·FAR· - DVX·III·PLAcentia·Parma·ETC  -  Armoured, draped bust with Order of the Fleece.
Rev.:   PLACentia·ROMANorum·COLONia   "Piacenza Colony of the Romans"
Personification of Piacenza from the front with lily and cornucopia,
on the left the personified river Po, on the right sitting she-wolf with city coat of arms.
In the exergue the year 1592 between V-R (Vincenzo Rivalta, mint master).
These pieces were also minted with other dates, sizes and weights, also without the she-wolf, as follows.

3 Scudi 1599, Piacenza.   Posthum,  Ø 50 mm, 95,22 g.   Varesi 1141; RM I 287,28; Dav.8362.
Rev.:   PLACENTIA·ROMANORum·COLONIA  -  ähnlich wie vor, ohne Wölfin.

Pico in Mirandola
In 1515, the Pico family got permission from Emperor Maximilian I to mint coins in Mirandola.
Alessandro I Pico, 1602-1637 in Mirandola, first Duke in 1617
He was born in 1567 and received the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1605. The elevation to Duke of Mirandola by Emperor Matthias in 1617 cost 100,000 gold florins and forced the Pico family to resume minting. Cheap imitations of coins of neighbouring mints were also produced and later also counterfeit coins of northern European estates with good sales at the beginning of the 30 Years War.

Scudo 1617, Mirandola.     Ø 42 mm, ca.31,7 g.  MIR 522/1; RM III 59,5; Dav.4010.
On the occasion of the elevation to duke in 1617, pronounced by Emperor Matthias.

Obv.:  ALEXAN·PICVS·MIRANDVLÆ·DVX·I·  -  Büste links, Vliesorden am Kordel. Abschnitt: ·1617·A·R·
Rev.:   Ꮺ NVNC⚛PEDE Ꮺ ⚛ Ꮺ CERTO Ꮺ   "Now with a sure footing"
The standing woman is Fortuna, who from now on advances with a sure footing: she holds the laurel branch in her hand to signal that she "lets anyone she wants come to her" and leans on the cube (representing Christ and religion, i.e. the "true cornerstone") and the globe, symbol of universality and eternity.
Translated from RM, S.59:  La donna in piedi è la Fortuna che d'ora in poi procederà con passo sicuro: ha in mano il ramo d'alloro a significare
"ch'ella fà friomfare chiunque vuole" e siappoggia sui cubo (che rappresenta Cristo e la religone cioè "la vera pietra an golare")
e sul globo, simbolo di universalità e di eternità.

Scudo da 56 bolognini 1618.     Ø 43 mm, 26,15 g.  RM III 60,6; MIR 528/1; Dav.4012.
Obv.:   ALEXANDER DVX·MIRANDVLÆ·I·✱56✱  -  Bust left between date 16 - 18.
Rev.:   CONCORDIÆ - MARCHIO·III   "... first Duke of Mirandola, third margrave of Concordia"
Crowned coat of arms (eagle for Mirandola, lion for the city of Concordia, shaft heart coat of arms for Pico, double eagle to the vicariate 1311) surrounded by the chain with the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Scudo o Tallero 1622, Mirandola.     Ø 38? mm, 27,68 g.  RM III 61,8; Dav.4013.
Obv.:   ALEXandro·DVX·MIRandulae·I·CONcordiae·MARchio·III·San·MARTino·IN SPIno·DOMinus
Bust to the right with ruff and Order of the Fleece on the chest.
Rev.:   INSIGNIA ANTIQVI - SSIMA ET MATERNA   "Very ancient and maternal symbols"
Crowned coat of arms surrounded by the chain of the Order with the Golden Fleece.

M. Ravegnani Morosini: Signorie e principati, monete italiane con ritratto 1450-1796, 1984, vol.III p.45-72

Della Rovere in Urbino
The noble family della Rovere (Italian for 'oak') provided the popes Sixtus IV and Julius II. Della Rovere inherited the Duchy of Urbino in 1508, ruling there until its extinction in 1631. The duchy lies between the Papal States, Tuscany and the Adriatic Sea and fell to the Papal States in 1631.
Urbino was elevated to a county by Emperor Frederick II in 1213 and promoted to a duchy by Pope Eugene IV in 1443.
Guidobaldo II della Rovere, 1538-1574 Duke of Urbino
Born in 1514. Under pressure from his father, he had to marry the heiress daughter Giulia Verano of the Duke of Camerino. Thus he was already Duke of Camerino when he inherited his father as Duke of Urbino in 1538. Pope Paul III, who was against this marriage, pressured Guidobaldo to renounce Camerino. The situation eased when Giulia died in 1547, and Guidobaldo married Vittoria Farnese, a granddaughter of the Pope, in 1548. Guidobaldo finished his service for Venice and became captain general of the papal army of Pope Julius III. In 1558 he became captain general of the armed forces in the Kingdom of Naples. He was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1559. In 1566 he sent his son and heir Francesco Maria (II) to the Spanish court to be educated.
NAC, Milan: auct.89 no.466 (11.2015) hammer price 280 EUR
Touch the image in order to see the drawing from CNI.
Da 9 gross n. d.     Ø 36 mm, 20,00 g.  CNI 24; RM I 89,12.
Obv.:   ·GVIVBALDVS·II·VRBINI·DVX·IIII·  -  Draped, bearded bust on the right.
Crowned coat of arms surrounded by the chain of the Order and the Golden Fleece.
The coat of arms of the della Rovere family consists of a leafy oak tree with acorns. In addition, they altered the coat of arms of the previous owners (House of Montefeltro) for Urbino. The diagonal stripes stand for the extinct House of Montefeltro, the crowned eagle for an ancient imperial increase, the crossed Petri keys stand for the office of Gonfaloniere of the Church of Federico II da Montefeltro. The last field (Hungary, Anjou, Jerusalem, Aragón) points to Naples and remains unexplained here.
Compare the arms of Urbino under Montefelto and Della Rovere.
Francesco Maria II della Rovere, 1574-1621 and 1623-24 Duke of Urbino
Born in 1549, Francesco Maria was at the court of Philip II of Spain in 1565-68. He succeeded his father Guidobaldo II della Rovere as Duke of Urbino in 1574. In financial distress, he sold the dominion of Sora for 100,000 gold florins to a legitimate son of the Pope. He was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece by Philip II in 1585. After the death of his wife Lucrezia d'Este, he married a younger cousin. He died without an inheritance. With his death, the Duchy of Urbino fell to the Papal States.

Piastra 1604.     Ø 43,9 mm, 31,90 g.  Cavicchi 172; RM I 99,16; Dav.4219.
Armoured and draped bust left, Golden Fleece on the breast, date ·MDCIIII· below.
Rev.:   ·VRBINI· - ·DVX·VI·ET·C·  -  Crowned coat of arms [Urbino(eagle) / della Rovere(oak tree) / Montefeltro(slanting beam) / Naples(Hungary, Anjou, Jerusalem, Aragon) and stake with papal insignia]. Two caryatids leaning against the side of the coat of arms.

Trivulzio in Retegno
The town of Retegno, southwest of Milan, was given in 1564 by Emperor Ferdinand III to Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio, whose family came from Misox in Switzerland. He received the hereditary title of Baron (Lord) of Retegno and the right to mint there. Well-known ancestors are Gian Giacomo Trivulzio il Magno († 1518), Marshal of France, and his grandson Gian Francesco Trivulzio († 1573), who maintained a mint in Roveredo.
Ercole Teodoro Trivulzio, 1656-1664 Lord of Retegno
Count of Mesocco, son of Teodoro Trivulzio, the later Cardinal
Ercole Teodoro Trivulzio (*1620) was in the military service of Spain in Italy. He was an imperial prince, Principe di Musocco e Valle Misolcina, Conte di Musocco, Conte di Melzo, Barone di Retegno, Signore di Castelzevio e Codogno, Signore di Basiasco, Vulzio, Cà de Bolli, Caleppio, Caviaga, Fracchia, Francina, Vigadore e Maleo. He was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1634.

3 thaler da 3 Filippi n. d. (posthumous).  Ø 46 mm, 83,21 g.
Later embosement from the old dies.   CNI IV 520,1; RM III 341,1; Varesi -; Dav.-.

Obv.:   THEOdorus·TRIVuLtius·Sacri·Romani·Imperii·{ET}·VALlis·MISOLcina·PRINCeps
Bust to the right with the Order of the Golden Fleece on the chest.
Rev.:   COmes·MVSOCHI·X·BARo·RETennii·IMPerialis· XIII·ET·Cetera
( Baro Retennii Imperialis = Baron of 'Imperial' Retegno )
Ornamented shield with a crowned three-face, on the side .VNICA. - .MENS.

1/2 Filippo n. d., Retegno.   Ø 35 mm, 13,71 g.  CNI IV 520,2; RM III 342,2; MIR 891.
Bust right, Order of the Golden Fleece on the chest.
The old Trivulzio coat of arms with the three stakes, large crown on top.
Antonio Teodoro Trivulzio, 1676-1678 Lord of Retegno
Count of Mesocco, son of Ercole Teodoro Trivulzio
King Philip IV of Spain appointed him captain of cavalry and, after his father's death in 1664, general of the duchy's militia. In 1666, Queen Maria Anna, the wife of Philip IV, appointed him Great of Spain and awarded him the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1667. Five years later he received the fief of Retegno with Bettola from Emperor Ferdinand III, where he exercised the right to mint coins from 1676.

10 ducats (10 Zecchini) 1676, Retegno.   Ø 40 mm, 34,51 g.   Friedb.985a; Dav.4137 in gold.
Obv.:   *THEODorus·TRIVLTius·Sacri·Romani·Imperii·ET·VALlis·MISOLcina·PRI - NCEPs
Bust right, golden fleece on cord, on section ·1676·.
Rev.:   COmes·MVSOCHI·X·BARo·RETennii·IMPerialis·XIIII·ET·C   "... 10th Count of Mesocco ..."
Ornamented shield with a crowned three-face, on the sides .VNICA. - .MENS.
The motto of the Trivulzio family was "Unicamens" (one spirit) in connection with three older faces with grey beards, but was later changed to "MensUnica" with three faces (young, adult, old) to symbolise the continuity of thought in the three ages of man or between generations.   (Maria Luisa Corti Crippa)

10 ducats (10 Zecchini) 1677, Retegno.   Ø 40 mm, 34,37 g.   Varesi 893; Friedb.986.
Obv.:   THEODORVS·TRIVLTIVS·S·R·I·ET·VAL·MISOL·PRI·1677  -  Half-length portrait in armour on the right with lace jabot, folded cloak, Order of the Golden Fleece on cord.
Helmeted Trivulzio coat of arms with large crest and sphinx holding a ring and a broken file in its hands, above a banner with the inscription: * NETES - MAI *.

Antonio Teodoro died without descendants. He appointed his cousin Antonio Gaetano Gallio as his successor in Retegno, on condition that he take the name Trevulzio. Finally, under the double name Gallio Trivulzio, he received imperial recognition as Imperial Lord of Retegno. The Order of the Golden Fleece was only awarded again to his son Antonio Tolomeo Gallio Trivulzio, now the Austrian Order, which he did not show on coins, however. With him, the Trivulzio family's right to mint expired.

Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba (1507-1582)
From a young age, Alba distinguished himself in the Spanish military. He became the greatest general of his time and remained unwaveringly loyal to his masters (first Emperor Charles V, then King Philip II), who, however, distrusted him because of his pronounced ambition.
The duke accompanied Charles V to Tunis (1535) and Algiers (1541). In the Schmalkaldic War he led the imperial troops to victory at Mühlberg (1547), helping Charles V to the height of his power. He also accompanied the Emperor in 1552 in his futile siege of the imperial city of Metz, which France had occupied. In Italy he fought successfully against Pope Paul IV, who was allied with France. In 1567, Philip II sent him with an army to the troubled Netherlands. As a result, the governor Margaret of Parma resigned and Alba took office. His bloody action against the rebels failed to calm the situation. Holland and Zeeland fell away and in 1573 Alba was recalled. In 1580, Alba militarily asserted his master's hereditary claims to Portugal, where he died as governor in 1582.

Silver medal 1567, minted.     Ø 36,5 mm, 23,68 g.  Dav.-.
Obv.:   FERDINandus·TOLETanus·ALBÆ·DVX·BELGii·PRÆFectus·
"Ferdinand of Toledo, Duke of Alba, Governor in Belgium"
Bust in armour with the Golden Fleece on a ribbon.

Rev.:  crowned ducal coat of arms and the Order chain with the Golden Fleece surrounded by 9 banners.
Date on both sides of the crown.

Sigismund Báthory, 1581-1598 Prince of Transylvania
Born in 1572, he succeeded his father as Prince of Transylvania in 1581 while still a minor. He had to contend with a pro-Turkish majority in the Diet, won victories over the Ottomans and subjugated Wallachia in 1595. Emperor Rudolf II allied himself with the prince against the Turks in 1595, confirmed his hereditary rights to Transylvania and married him to an archduchess; in return, Sigismund recognised Rudolf II's sovereignty and - in the event of the extinction of his house - his hereditary rights to Transylvania. The next year Sigismund Báthory became a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. After failures, Sigismund exchanged Transylvania with the Emperor for the Duchies of Opole and Ratibor in 1598. In 1600 his return to Transylvania failed. He died in Prague in 1612.

Ducat 1598, NB (Nagybánya)     Ø ?? mm, 3,40 g.  Huszár 113; Resch 250; Friedb.299.
Obv.:   SIGIS·D·G·TRAnsylvaniae - MOLdaviae·WAlachiaeTransalpinae·Sacri Romani Imperii Princeps
Crowned and nimbed double-headed eagle with the Bathory family coat of arms on the breast,
the chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece around it.

Rev.:   S LADISLAVS* - REX·15·98·  -  St. Ladislaus in armour standing frontally,
halberd in his right hand, imperial orb in his left, mint mark N - B to the sides.

Continue to Part 2d :  Austrian new princes

Order of the Golden Fleece on coins and medals
1. Sovereigns of the Order
Part 1a :   Philip the Good - Emperor Charles V
Part 1b :  King Philip II - Spanish / Austrian branch
2. Appointed knights
Part 2a :  Baden, Bavaria, Brunswick & Lueneburg,
Palatinate, Palatinate-Neuburg, Palatinate-Bavaria, Fürstenberg
Part 2b :  Poland, Saxony, Rietberg, Wuerttemberg
Part 2c :  Italy, Spain, ..., Transylvania
Part 2d :  Austrian new princes

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